Showing posts with label Tech. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Tech. Show all posts

Entropy: Meaning, Concept, Examples in Everyday Life...

... and Why Do Things Go Wrong.

If you are looking for how entropy is an integral part of our lives, then you have found it. An alternate title for this page would be: The Reality of Entropy  - The Top 10 Ways Entropy Messes with Us.

Among other things, this page has two lists. There is a short-description list of examples as to ways entropy affects our daily lives. And then there is a long-description list of examples explaining exactly how entropy does this.


For some readers, this page will be humorous. For other readers, this page will be serious. Both perceptions are correct. And it should be noted there are more than 10 ways scattered around this page. Lucky us.

List of Examples of the Effects of Entropy in Our Daily Lives

  • Why do things break down? That's entropy.
  • Why is Murphy's Law so prevalent? That's entropy.
  • Why do things malfunction? That's entropy.
  • Why are we obstructed in everything we try to do? That's entropy.
  • Why are there a hundred times more mistakes than accomplishments? That's entropy.
  • Why are there a hundred times more failures than successes? That's entropy.

The Universe - Entropy Is the Built-in Randomness of Reality

What does entropy mean to humanity? Whenever a human or humankind in general tries to create order, entropy immediately begins to disassemble it. This is why any man-made object will immediately begin to deteriorate upon its completion. It does not matter if it's a newly manufactured stick of gum or a newly-constructed, 100-story skyscraper; the result is always the same. Entropy immediately begins doing everything in its power to render it useless, broken-down, and of no value.

Chaos and Entropy

"Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone." - Albert Einstein in The Evolution of Physics

Why Things Break – List of Examples of How Entropy Works and Some of Its Methodologies

How Entropy Uses Oxidation

One of entropy's favorite methods. With any physical item humankind creates, whether made of most metals or other materials, entropy will immediately start to change the object's chemical structure. In due course the object's chemical composition becomes such that the object's original purpose is no longer viable; plain, ordinary rust being the most well-known example. Another common example are liquids. Pretty much any liquid, whether relating to food or industrial manufacturing, begins to decompose and becomes useless fairly quickly when not immediately used for its intended purpose.

How Entropy Uses Gravity

Another favorite tool of entropy. Quite simply, entropy will keep pulling on each and every object until the object comes crashing down, no matter how long it takes. Entropy never quits. And the larger the object, the more forceful the gravity and the more determined entropy becomes. Breakage and injuries, whether animate or inanimate, are the norm.

How Entropy Uses Friction

Another tool of entropy. The more often used term for "friction" is "wear-and-tear". Every time an object is used, it is subjected to wear-and-tear. Sooner or later, the wear-and-tear renders the object no longer usable. Cars and other vehicles being the most well-known examples. However, entropy's industriousness is also equally busy with all other manufactured machinery as well. There does happen to be one scenario where friction is a good thing, but this website is not going to go there.

How Entropy Uses Contamination

One of entropy's often used tools. This is where entropy uses one class of objects to destroy another class of objects. Probably the top categories of objects entropy uses to destroy other objects and entities are bacteria, viruses, and even plain, ordinary dust. In fact, when entropy isn't using oxidation to destroy all man made foods or industrially made liquids, contamination is what entropy then brings into play.

How Entropy Uses Heat

Otherwise known as an increase in temperature. For every degree increase in temperature, entropy accelerates decomposition, deterioration, destruction of the target object. Heat is entropy's favorite method for rendering any and all manufactured electronics useless. A decrease of temperature to .01 degrees Kelvin is minimum entropy. An increase of temperature to x millions/billions degrees is maximum entropy.

How Entropy Uses Synergy or Combinations of Destructive Methods

Combining methods from the above list is also an entropic standard procedure. Entropy really likes using the combination of methods where possible, because it accelerates the destruction; usually exponentially. The best example is where friction generates heat, which causes expansion, which causes more friction, which causes more heat, ad infinitum; the inevitable and sometimes quick result being the destruction of the victim object. Any manufactured item with moving parts is where this most often comes into play.

How Entropy Uses Cross-Purposes

Another often overlooked tool of entropy. Aside from the inherent cross-purposes designed into what we perceive as nature; we tend to forget humans are also a part of the same construct. So much so that humans are at cross-purposes more often than they are at equilibrium. The more disagreement, the more entropy. Taken to extreme, there is much more entropy during war than peace.

Randomness and Probability


Randomness – Entropy's Favorite Tool of All

Randomness can otherwise be defined as thermodynamics and/or quantum physics. The only difference between the two being the size of the objects entropy uses as its tools. In the case of thermodynamics, entropy uses atoms and molecules as its implementer. In the case of quantum physics, entropy uses subatomic particles. In both cases, whether they be molecules, atoms, or subatomic particles; the little critters immediately start randomly wandering around and going places where we don't want them to go.

Probability – Entropy Uses This Tool When It Just Wants to Have Fun

Two cars arriving at an intersection at the same time is an example of this. And then there are the asteroids, very large meteors, etc.... They can and do intersect Earth's orbit every now and again. And, of course, sooner or later Earth is just going to happen to be there. Probability is really just an attempt to understand the aforementioned category of randomness; with the additional factor of randomness using the much larger objects along with the smaller ones.

Entropy Is the Opposite of Order

Entropy is change, invariably for the worse. Entropy is constant. The proverb, "Change is constant", is true. Entropy is the antithesis and enemy of order. Energy and matter are in constant flux. Entropy's favorite concepts, quite simply, are: decomposition, destruction, deterioration, and chaos.

How does one compensate for and accept entropy? Keeping the following premises in mind will help.
  •  Entropy is not our friend.
  • Entropy can be slowed, but never stopped.
  • Entropy can be postponed, but never defeated.
  • Nothing lasts forever.
  • The universe doesn't care.

Entropy takes it all, whether you want it to or not, entropy takes it all. Entropy bears it away, and in the end, there is only darkness.*
*A paraphrased quote from Stephen King.

Have a nice day.

Google and Government Privacy Concerns and You...

...What It Is and Always Will Be.

Warning, some humor may be present; as well as the political aspect. But also lots of informational items and resources. In truth, Google does seem to be one of the more benign corporations out there. Besides, though this article is mostly about Google; Google is really only the tip of the iceberg as far as companies and corporations go. As for governments, the last paragraph says it all. In reality, no one has had any privacy for decades.

I Love Google. Well, Maybe "Fond" Is a Better Word.

Google. All Seeing. All Knowing. All Powerful.


If you really are concerned about privacy invasion, be sure to read the last section of this page. What you are concerned about has been going on long before the internet and Google arrived on the scene. In other words, on the private-sector side, George Orwell's 1984 scenario showed up a long time ago. As for the public-sector side, more about that later.)

Wherever I Go, There Is Google...

No matter which website I visit, there's the Google API's scattered across my screen. Google knows I've been there.

Whenever I search for something, Google knows and Google saves. And then Google follows me around, telling me all about it for the next month (they really do).

Google knows where I've been. Google knows where I am. Google knows where I want to go. But wait, there's more...
  • Google knows my name.
  • Google knows my gender.
  • Google knows my age.
  • Google knows my ethnicity.
  • Google knows my education level.
  • Google knows what I do for a living.
  • Google knows what I do for fun.
  • Google knows what I buy.
  • Google knows the companies I love.
  • Google knows the companies I hate.
  • Google knows what financial institution I use.
  • Google knows where I live.
  • Google knows the YouTube song I listened to six times a a row.

We Are Being Watched...

Not only does Google want to know, and does know, everything about me; they want to watch me.

So much so, they even send driverless cars with cameras that follow me around wherever I go. Sure, they say it is for their Google Maps; but I know better.

And if the cars weren't bad enough, now Google is launching satellites to watch over me. I mean seriously, satellites!?! They claim it's for their Google Earth, but then they took a picture of me in front of my house. [Yes, they really did. The technology is that good. No, I'm not posting the link; I'm already paranoid enough as it is.]

And then, of course, there's the whole GPS thing...

Google Headquarters

But Wait! There's Even More.

Google isn't happy just knowing everything about us and where we are at any given moment.

Google is gradually buying up the entire planet. If you doubt this, check out acquisitions and partnerships. Not only is Google buying up everything in sight, they have even partnered with the NASA Ames Research Center.

The NSA certainly loved Google and what they do. So much so, they were busily stealing all of Google's information about us from the Google data centers; leastwise until Google wised-up and encrypted it.

The CIA certainly loved Google. Apparently, they've been stealing everyone's user data from Google's Chrome browser. Fortunately, Google announced in March 2017 that they've finally been able to put a stop to most of it.

Do you use web-based email? Someone is probably thumbing through your letters as we speak.

Do you use Google Docs? Best not to put anything there that some law enforcement agency or your spouse's divorce lawyer might be interested in...

It Gets Worse... Google Has a Sense of Humor and Can Strike at Any Time...

...and without warning.

Depending on which browser you use:
This is only the tip of the iceberg. You can find more at Google Hoaxes and Easter Eggs.

Where Will Google Be in a 100 Years? They'll Still Be Around.


Other companies that have survived over 100 years include ExxonMobil, IBM, General Electric, Chevron, McKesson, and many others.

IBM is the most notable of these. Even though they are in the cutthroat technology industry, and even though they have seriously messed up at times, they are still around. And even prospering.

Will Google still be around in a 100 years? Probably. As long as Google continues to keep hiring the smartest people on the planet; and as long as Google continues its company charter policy of "Do no evil", and thus avoiding perturbing the general population; the odds of Google's continuing prosperity are good.

When some new company does come along with a threatening new technology, Google will no doubt do the corporate usual; buy them or stomp on them. Capitalism is capitalism...

One of Google's Data Centers

Though this page is sometimes humorous of intent, it somehow also kind of turned into an informational article and a review of Google and of internet life in general. I'm fine with that. All in all, I am fond of Google. One really does have to admire what Google has accomplished since its inception. And as far as corporations go, Google really does seem to be less evil than most.

The Privacy Controversy


There has been a lot of media coverage concerning privacy issues. The thing is, all the other corporations and companies out there have been doing the exact, same thing. And not just tech companies; any company that has any interaction with the public is busily snooping into your private life in every way they can. Admittedly, Google is probably better at it than most.

It gets worse. This has been going on long before the internet came along. Try decades and decades and decades; probably somewhere between 50 to a 100 years or even longer.

If you really want an eye-opener as to privacy invasion, try checking out the Credit Report Guide for Beginners page; this has likewise been going on for decades and decades and decades.

As previously mentioned, the private-sector side of privacy invasion arrived a long time ago. As for the public-sector side of things, both George Orwell's 1984 and Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 officially arrived the day after September 11, 2001.

Ohm's Law for How Many Watts, Volts, Amps, Etc.

Calculate Power and Watts; EMF and Volts; Current and Amps; Resistance and Ohms.

A handy math guide for those electrical or electronic math questions.

  • How to Quickly and Easily Find Electronics Answers
  • Using Ohm's Law and Its Derivatives
  • Electronics and Electrical Math Solutions
  • Includes Complete Lessons and Examples

(The templates alone might immediately provide the solution.)


It is guessed you are here to figure out a math answer to a particular electrical or electronics problem.

This is the place to figure out watts, amps, volts, or ohms from any of the other two by using Ohm's law and its derivatives. The math is surprisingly simple. You should have your answer in no time. Don't forget the templates and table of contents.

In most circumstances, the only math required is multiplication and division. Ohm's law and its derivatives uses some basic letters to represent watts, amps, volts, and ohms.
  • "P" is the industry standard to designate power by the unit of measurement, watts. "W" is sometimes used.
  • "I" is the industry standard to designate current by the unit of measurement, amps.
  • "E" and "V" are both used to designate electromotive-force by the unit of measurement, volts. The industry formula standard used to be "E", but now both "E" and "V" are being used interchangeably.
  • "R" is the industry standard to designate resistance by the unit of measurement, ohms.
And that's all there is to it. No degree in rocket surgery required. No need to memorize, definitions reprinted as needed.

If your inquiry concerns a particular appliance, device, etc.; check to see if there is any sort of specifications label, metal plate, or even just a sticker. Even if it doesn't provide the outright answer, it will hopefully have enough other information to enable you to calculate the answer from the templates.  If you happen to have the manual (maybe it is still online?), then you may become lucky indeed. As an example, if it tells you it consumes 200 watts and you know your house voltage is 120 volts, then you can easily calculate how many amps it uses and/or what its internal resistance in ohms will be.

" Ω " This handy, multi-purpose symbol (scattered here, there, everywhere for mobile users) opens the Google calculator in a separate tab or window.
  • Both " * " and " x " means multiply.
  • Both " / " and " ÷ " means divide.
  • "( )" means do whatever is inside the parenthesis first.
  • After arriving and before entering numbers, you will need to click its rectangular number-entry box first to get its attention.

Comprehensive List of Ohm's Law Formulas and Examples

Templates and Table of Contents

Here is a list of formulas and templates. With any luck, you will find one you can use and won't have to bother clicking the related title for the included lessons and examples.

Calculate how many WATTS from volts, amps, ohms.


P = EI          ______________  *  _______________  =  ______________
                         Volts                           Amps                           Watts

P = E2/R      ______________  /  _______________  =  ______________
                   Volts Squared                   Ohms                           Watts

P = I2R        ______________  *  _______________  =  ______________
                   Amps Squared                  Ohms                           Watts

Calculate how many AMPS from watts, volts, ohms.


I = P/E        ______________  _______________  =  ______________
                        Watts                         Volts                            Amps

I = E/R        ______________  /  _______________  =  _______________
                        Volts                         Ohms                            Amps

I = √(P/R)   Sq Rt  (  ____________  /  ____________  )   =   __________
                                  Watts                    Ohms                         Amps

Calculate how many VOLTS from amps, watts, ohms.


E = P/I        _______________  /  _______________  =  ______________
                       Watts                         Amps                            Volts

E = IR        _______________  *  _______________  =  ______________
                       Amps                         Ohms                            Volts

E = √(PR)   Sq Rt  (  ____________  *  ___________  )   =   __________
                                 Watt                       Ohms                       Volts

Calculate how many OHMS from volts, amps, watts.


R = E/I      _______________  /  _______________  =  _____________
                          Volts                           Amps                         Ohms

R = E2/P    _______________  /  _______________  =  _____________
                    Volts Squared                   Watts                         Ohms

R = P/I2     _______________  /  _______________  =  _____________
                        Watts                    Amps Squared                 Ohms

Lessons

There are four, independent, separate tutorials on this page. Simply select the one in the table of contents specifically addressing that which you you wish to find. Each how-to segment includes examples. Thanks to the laws of physics; whether it be trying to calculate how many amps, watts, ohms, or volts; Ohm's law will always provide three different, possible ways for finding the answer.

Hopefully, between the specifications plate, manual(s), and the above math; you will be able to find the answer to your question. Otherwise...

What Is a VOM ( Electronics Definition ) And Some General Notes...

VOM is the acronym for Volt Ohm Milliammeter, More specifically, it is known as a multimeter or a multitester. The usual VOM can measure AC and DC voltage, current in milliamps, and resistance in ohms and megohms. For the purposes of this page, it is usually needed to find the resistance. Once the number of ohms are known, more of the templates and formulas can be used when the usual volt/amp/watt amounts aren't available.

When it comes to test instruments, skip the cheap ones. What a test instrument tells you will in turn cause you to make important decisions. As such, a quality test instrument is much more important than the usual RadioShack novelty toy, piece of wiring, batteries, etc. And whatever you do, do not buy a kit to make your own test instrument. Buying and building kits for other things is fine, but leave the VOM manufacturing to the professionals with the quality reputations (this is the voice of personal experience talking).

Do not buy a VOM until you truly know what you are doing. Cheaper meters are extremely inaccurate when it comes to measuring certain ranges of resistance, etc. Even voltage and milliampere measurements can be suspect. Really research the subject first.

Ohm's Law math lessons and examples follow or select from the Table of Contents.




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How Many WATTS - How to Calculate or Convert Watts to and from Any Two of Either Volts, Amps, or Ohms.

(P=watts, E=volts, I=amps, R=ohms)

Includes amps to watts and volts to watts.

Watts is the composite measurement of electromotive force and current, otherwise known as voltage and amperage. It is how we quantify electrical energy amounts and usage.

Three ways to figure out the electrical energy amount, measured in watts...

#1. P = EI — Watts Are Equal to Volts Times Amps

 Ω (P=watts, E=volts, I=amps, R=ohms)

Ω  Some examples...

  • Tungsten filament light bulb. 120 volts times .8333 amps equals 100 watts. 120 * .8333 = 100
  • Microwave oven. 120 volts times 5.8333 amps equals 700 watts. 120 * 5.8333 = 700
  • Microwave oven. 120 volts times 9.1666 amps equals 1100 watts. 120 * 9.1666 = 1100
  • Some air conditioners. 240 volts times 4 amps equals 960 watts. 240 * 4 = 960
  • Car battery. 12 volts times 3 amps equals 36 watts. 12 * 3 = 36
  • Car voltage when engine is running. 14.5 volts times 3 amps equals 43.5 watts. 14.5 * 3 = 43.5
  • Car battery. 12 volts times 15 amps equals 180 watts. 12 * 15 = 180
  • Car voltage when engine is running. 14.5 volts times 15 amps equals 217.5 watts. 14.5 * 15 = 217.5
  • Most laptop batteries. 19 volts times 3.5 amps equals 66.5 watts. 19 * 3.5 = 66.5
Side note: the prefix, "milli", means one one-thousandth.
  • There are 1000 milliwatts in a watt.
  • There are a 1000 millivolts in a volt.
  • There are a 1000 milliamps in an amp.

 Ω More examples...

  • A toy using a 9-volt battery consumes 250 milliamps (.25 amps). Multiplying 9 volts by 250 milliamps calculates out to 2.25 watts. 9 * .25  = 2.25
  • A 350-millivolt subcircuit uses 455 milliamps (.455 amps). Multiplying 350 millivolts by 455 milliamps indicates that part of the circuit is using 159 milliwatts (rounded) of energy. 350 * 455 = 159.25
  • A 4.5 volt LED array uses 75 milliamps. Multiplying 4.5 volts by .075 shows the LED array consumes  337.5 milliwatts. 4.5 * .075 = 337.5

#2. P = E²/R — Watts Are Equal to Volts Squared Divided by Ohms

 Ω (P=watts, E=volts, I=amps, R=ohms)

 Ω Some examples...

  • 110 volts squared, then divided by 65 ohms equals 186.15 watts. 110²/65 = 12100/65 = 186.15
  • 120 volts squared, then divided by 125 ohms equals  115.2 watts. 120²/125 = 14400/125 = 115.2
  • 70 volts squared, then divided by 42 ohms equals 116.67 watts.70²/42 = 4900/42 =116.67
  • 12 volts squared, then divided by 24 ohms equals 6 watts. 12²/24 = 144/24 = 6
  • 12 volts squared, then divided by 100 ohms equals 1.44 watts. 12²/100 = 144/100 = 1.44
  • 6 volts squared, then divided by 100 ohms equals 360 milliwatts. 6²/100 = 36/100 = .36
  • A motor  requires 40 volts and has an internal resistance of 25 ohms. 40 volts squared, then divided by 25 ohms has a total energy usage of 64 watts. 40²/25 = 1600/25 = 64
  • There are 7.5 volts running through a component with 5 ohms resistance. Its wattage would be a total of 11.25 watts. 7.5²/5 = 56.25/5 = 11.25

#3. P = I²R — Watts Are Equal to Amps Squared Times Ohms

 Ω (P=watts, E=volts, I=amps, R=ohms) stopping point

 Ω Some examples...

  • 1 amps squared, multiplied by 30 ohms equals 30 watts. 1² * 30 = 1 * 30 = 30
  • 5 amps squared, multiplied by 30 ohms equals  750 watts. 5² * 30 = 25 * 30 = 750
  • 14 amps squared, multiplied by 2 ohms equals 392 watts.14² * 2 = 196 * 2 =392
  • 100 milliamps squared, multiplied by 30 ohms equals 30 milliwatts. .100² * 30 = .01 * 30 = .03
  • 334 milliamps squared, multiplied by 15 ohms equals 1.6725 watts. .334² * 15 = .1115 * 15 = 1.6725
  • 750 milliamps squared, multiplied by 5 ohms equals 2.8125 watts. .750² * 5 = .5625 * 5 = 2.8125


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How Many AMPS - How to Calculate or Convert Amps to and from Any Two of Either Watts, Volts, or Ohms.

(I=amps, E=volts, P=watts, R=ohms)

Includes volts to amps and watts to amps..

It's current and amperage that makes those power meters spin and flips those fuse box switches and circuit breakers on occasion. The 1500-watt space heater is a good example. Microwave ovens can be a close second. An unexpected short circuit in an appliance or house wiring is what causes buildings to burn down if the circuit breaker doesn't do its job.

Three ways to figure out current in amps...

#1. I = P/E — Amps Are Equal to Watts Divided by Volts

 Ω (I=amps, E=volts, P=watts, R=ohms)

Ω  Some examples...

  • The aforementioned space heater. 1500 watts divided by 120 volts equals 12.5 amps current. 1500/120 = 12.5
  • The aforementioned microwave oven. 1100 watts divided by 120 volts equals 9.17 amps current. 1100/120 = 9.17
Turning both of those on at once will flip a 15-amp circuit breaker right there. A 20-amp circuit breaker wouldn't be too thrilled with it either.

Ω More examples...

  • 2 watts divided by 6 volts equals .33333 amps current. 2/6 = .34
  • 5 watts divided by 12 volts equals .416666 amps current. 5/12 = .417
Side note: the prefix, "milli", means one one-thousandth.
  • There are a 1000 millivolts in a volt.
  • There are a 1000 milliamps in an amp.
  • There are 1000 milliwatts in a watt.

 Ω More examples...

  • A 140-watt computer circuit board uses 360 volts from a step up transformer. This is not a circuit board you want to mess with. Dividing 140 watts by 360 volts shows a current of  389 milliamps running through it. 140/360  = .389 amps (or 389 milliamps)
  • A 300-milliwatt circuit board is connected to a 3-volt power supply. Dividing 300 milliwatts by 3 volts  indicates the circuit board requires a current of 100 milliamps (.1 amps). .3/3 = .1
  • A 20-watt device uses standard 120-volt house current. Dividing 20 watts by 120 volts reveals the device is using .1666 amps or 167 milliamps. 20/120 = .167

#2. I = E/R — Amps Are Equal to Volts Divided by Ohms

 Ω (I=amps, E=volts, P=watts, R=ohms)

 Ω Some examples...

  • 240 volts divided by 500 ohms calculates to a current of 480 milliamps. 240/500 = .480
  • 110 volts  divided by 2000 ohms calculates to a current of 55 milliamps. 110/2000 = .055
  • 12 volts  divided by 250 ohms calculates to a current of 48 milliamps. 12/250 = .048
  • A tiny, hobby motor needs 3 volts to operate and has an internal resistance of 40 ohms. 3 volts divided by 40 ohms indicates a usage of 75 milliamps. 3/40 = .075
  • There are 9 volts running through a controller with an internal resistance of 135 ohms. 9 divided by 135 equals a current usage of 67 milliamps. 9/135 = .066666

#3. I = √(P/R) — Amps Are Equal to the Square Root of the Quotient of  Watts Divided by Ohms

 Ω (I=amps, E=volts, P=watts, R=ohms)

Contrary to the general introduction, this third and last resort does involve the use of square roots; so break out the calculator, spreadsheet, or search engine if you haven't done so already.

Basically, all one does is divide watts by ohms; then just find the square root of the quotient to determine the amperage.

"" is the symbol for square root.

 ΩSome examples...

  • 100 watts divided by 4 ohms gives us a quotient of 25. The square root of 25 is 5 amps.  √(100/4) = √25 = 5
  • 900 watts divided by 5 ohms gives us a quotient of 180. The square root of 180 is 13.42  amps (rounded).  √(900/5) = √180 =13.4164
  • 40 watts divided by 40 ohms gives us a quotient of 1. The square root of 1 is 1 amp.  √(40/40) = √1 =1
  • 5 watts divided by 100 ohms gives us a quotient of .05. The square root of .05 results in an answer of 224 milliamps (rounded).  √(5/100) = √(.05) =.2236  Square roots of numbers less than 1.0 are odd that way.


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How Many VOLTS - How to Calculate or Convert Volts to and from Any Two of Either Watts, Amps, or Ohms.

(E=volts, P=watts, I=amps, R=ohms)

Includes amps to volts and watts to volts.

Unlike with most watts and amps questions, voltage and voltage-drop questions usually have to do with circuit boards and their sub components. However, here are also some basics...
  • Typical US house voltage is 120 volts; though for certain appliances, voltage is boosted to 240 volts.
  • The car battery standard is 12 volts.
  • The laptop standard is most often 19 volts.
  • Standard carbon or alkaline batteries (whether sizes D, C, aa, aaa, etc.) are all 1.5 volts each. Putting them in series is simply additive. As an example, if you see a 6-volt flashlight being advertised, you know it will require four batteries.

Three ways to figure out volts...

#1. E = P/I — Volts Are Equal to Watts Divided by Amps

 Ω (E=volts, P=watts, I=amps, R=ohms)

Ω  Some examples...

  • 500 watts divided by 5 amps equals 100 volts. 500/5 = 100
  • 12 watts divided by .1 amps equals 120 volts. 12/.1 = 120
  • 150 watts divided by 2 amps equals 75 volts. 150/2 = 75
  • A 6-watt car instrument cluster has half an amp running through it. Is the car engine running or not? Dividing the 6 watts by .5 amps gives us 12 volts. The engine is off (when the engine is running the system voltage ranges from 14 to 14.5 volts). 6/.5 = 12
  • A 600-watt starter for a small engine requires 50 amps. Dividing 600 watts by 50 amps indicates that a 12-volt battery can indeed do the job. 600/50 = 12
Side note: the prefix, "milli", means one one-thousandth.
  • There are a 1000 millivolts in a volt.
  • There are a 1000 milliamps in an amp.
  • There are 1000 milliwatts in a watt.

 Ω More examples...

  • A 400-milliwatt (.4 watts) circuit board uses 80 milliamps (.080 amps). Dividing 400 milliwatts by 80  milliamps indicates it is connected to a 5-volt input. 400/80 = 5
  • A 180-milliwatt component uses 45 milliamps. Dividing 180 milliwatts by 45 milliamps equals 4 volts. 180/45 = 4

#2. E = IR — Volts Are Equal to Amps Multiplied by Ohms

 Ω (E=volts, P=watts, I=amps, R=ohms)

 Ω Some examples...

  • 10 amps multiplied by 12 ohms equals 120 volts. 10 * 12 = 120
  • 35 amps multiplied by 42 ohms equals 1470 volts. 35 * 42 = 1470
  • .5 amps multiplied by 6 ohms equals 3 volts. .500 * 6 = 3
  • An air conditioner  requires 50 amps. The motor, pump, and other circuitry has a total resistance of 4.8 ohms (surprisingly low actually). That A/C will require 240 volts to operate. 50 * 4.8 = 240
  • There are 600 milliamps running through a circuit with a measured resistance of 5 ohms. So that would be 600 milliamps times 5 ohms, giving you 3 volts. .600 * 5 = 3

#3. E = √(PR) — Volts Are Equal to the Square Root of the Product of Watts Times Ohms

 Ω (E=volts, P=watts, I=amps, R=ohms)

Contrary to the general introduction, this third and last resort does involve the use of square roots; so break out the calculator, spreadsheet, or search engine if you haven't done so already.

Basically, all one does is multiply watts times ohms; then just find the square root of the product to determine the voltage.

"" is the symbol for square root.

 Ω Some examples...

  • 14 watts multiplied by 10.285 (rounded) ohms equals a product of 144. The square root of 144 is 12 volts. √(144 * 10.285) = √144 = 12
  • 300 watts multiplied by 20 ohms equals a product of 6000. The square root of 6000 is 77.46 volts (rounded).  √(300 * 20) = √6000 = 77.46
  • A 900-watt microwave oven magnetron has an internal resistance of 15 ohms. 900 watts times 15 ohms gives a product of 13,500. The square root of 13,500 is 116 volts (rounded).  √(900 * 15) = √13500 = 116.2. What with house voltages ranging from 110 to 120 volts, that will work just fine.
Side note: the prefix, "kilo", means one thousand.
  • There are a 1000 volts in a kilovolt (kv).
  • There are a 1000 amps in a kiloamp (KA).
  • There are 1000 watts in a kilowatt. (kw).

 Ω An example...

  • 1,000 watts (1kw) multiplied by 10 ohms equals a product of 10,000. The square root of 10,000 is 100 volts.  √(1000 * 10) = √10000 = 100


.

How Many OHMS - How to Calculate or Convert Ohms to and from Any Two of Either Watts, Volts, or Amps.

(R=ohms, E=volts, I=amps, P=watts)

Unlike with most watts and amps questions, resistance and ohms questions usually have to do with circuit boards and their sub components. However, the internal resistance of an appliance or device greatly affects how much power it uses. The classic example of this is the incandescent, tungsten filament light bulb. A single, 100-watt bulb requires almost a full amp of current at 120 volts. That can add up fairly quickly over time. Power meters love it, everyone else hates it.

Three ways to figure out resistance in ohms...

#1. R = E/I — Ohms Are Equal to Volts Divided by Amps

 Ω (R=ohms, E=volts, I=amps, P=watts)

Ω  Some examples...

  • The aforementioned light bulb. 120 volts divided by .8333 amps equals 144 ohms resistance. 120/.8333 = 144
  • 240 volts divided by 3 amps equals 80 ohms resistance. 240/3 = 80
  • 12 volts divided by 1.50 amps equals 8 ohms resistance. 12/1.5 = 8
  • 19 volts divided by 2.3 amps equals 8.26 ohms resistance. 19/2.3 = 8.26
Side note: the prefix, "milli", means one one-thousandth.
  • There are a 1000 millivolts in a volt.
  • There are a 1000 milliamps in an amp.
  • There are 1000 milliwatts in a watt.

 Ω More examples...

  • A 9-volt circuit board uses 140 milliamps (.140 amps). Dividing 9 volts by 140 milliamps indicates the board has an internal resistance of 64.29 ohms (rounded). 9/.14 = 64.29
  • A 500-millivolt component uses 120 milliamps. Dividing 500 millivolts by 120 milliamps indicates the component has a resistance of 4.17 (rounded) ohms. 500/120 = 4.17
  • A 4.5 volt LED array uses 15 milliamps. Dividing 4.5 by .015 equates to a resistance of 300 ohms. 4.5/.015 = 300

#2. R = E²/P — Ohms Are Equal to Volts Squared Divided by Watts

 Ω (R=ohms, E=volts, I=amps, P=watts)

 Ω Some examples...

  • 120 volts squared, then divided by 100 watts equals a resistance of 144 ohms. 120²/100 = 14400/100 = 144
  • 50 volts squared, then divided by 35 watts equals a resistance of 71.43 ohms.50²/35 = 2500/35 = 71.43
  • 6 volts squared, then divided by 4 watts indicates a resistance of  9 ohms. 6²/4 = 36/4 = 9
  • A motor  requires 36 volts and uses 40 watts of power. 36 volts squared, then divided by 40 watts has a total resistance of 32.4 ohms. 36²/40 = 1296/40 = 32.4 
  • There are 1.5 volts running through a component using 2 watts. Its resistance would be 1.125 ohms.1.5²/2 = 2.25/2 = 1.125

#3. R = P/I² — Ohms Are Equal to Watts Divided by the Square of Amps

 Ω (R=ohms, E=volts, I=amps, P=watts)

Ω Some examples...

  • 150 watts divided by 7 amps squared. The 7 amps squared is 49, so we have 150 watts divided by 49; giving us an answer of 3.06 ohms. 150/7² = 150/49 = 3.06
  • 40 watts divided by by 20 amps squared. The 20 amps squared is 400, so we have 40 watts divided by 400, giving us an answer of .1 ohms or 100 milliohms. 40/20² = 40/400 = .1 We are pretty much looking at a 2-volt short circuit on a board that needs fixing, probably a shorted out capacitor.
  • A 500-watt refrigerator divided by 11 amps squared. 11 amps squared is 121, so we have 500 watts divided by 121, giving us an answer of 4.13 ohms (rounded).
  • A 5-watt circuit sub-board consumes 300 milliamps. So the equation is 5/.3² to give us the resistance in ohms. .3² is .09,  so we have 5/.09 = 55.56 ohms (rounded) in calculated resistance.



A Final Thought...


Do be careful. The laws of physics are unforgiving.

How to Make Your Own Bookmarks App

Make the Browser's Clumsy, Old Bookmarks List into an Online Document Page or Website.

A quick lesson on how to create your own bookmark manager app. Setting up a bookmarks web page or online document is easy. You will be so glad you did.

No Technical Skills Required
And Much More Fun

If you can...
  1. Type text.
  2. Highlight text.
  3. Click a link icon.
  4. Copy/Paste an URL from the browser website address bar.
Then you can create your own personal template, bookmark webpage or online document.

Why Make Your Own, Homemade Bookmark Manager App?

Quite simply, because it is incredibly convenient. Laying out all your links exactly the way you want them is so much more efficient than any browser bookmark list or pre-made app can ever be or do for you.

Plus, the bookmark manager web page or online document will always be there for you. Convenience factors include:
  • Always available no matter which or whose computer or mobile device you are using.
  • The ability to organize your links in rows as well as columns.
  • Never losing all your bookmarks, due to accidental deletion or browser corruption.
  • Never losing all your bookmarks, due to hard disk or other computer problems.
  • The convenience of grouped-by-type links.
  • The convenience of grouped-by-subdomain links.
  • The convenience of grouped-by-frequency links.
  • The ability to set the background and your link text to whatever color, size, and font, that is easy on and best for your eyes.
  • The ability of your bookmark lists to change as your needs and preferences evolve.

How to Organize Your Bookmarks. And Things to Include in Your Lists.



You will probably want to put your most frequently visited websites near the top. Only you can decide what those might be.

As for groups, some examples would be:
  • A row of the search engines you use.
  • A row of the news sites you regularly visit.
  • A row of your frequently visited social media sites.
  • A row of your blog websites.
  • A row of your email websites.
  • A row of your less frequently visited social media websites.
  • A row of utility websites, e.g., weather, calendar, etc.
  • A row of whatever doesn't fit somewhere else.
  • Subdomain rows of a website.
As for the last one, Facebook might be a good example. If you regularly go to certain accounts all the time, it would make sense to set up a convenient row of links to those accounts.

How to Make Your Online Document Bookmark Page

Here is a Demo Bookmark Template (opens in new tab).  Feel free to copy to your own document. The links are set to open in new tabs, which is a necessary feature. If that attribute fails to transfer when you copy, you will need to reset them to that option.

If you are not already using an online document app that lets you publish to the web, then I recommend G-Drive for your first cloud experience. They are owned by Google, so they will be around for awhile; it is free. It is as easy to use as any other word processor. Once you are familiar with it, you will probably use it for other projects as well.

Side note. Sometimes, copying from one app or format to another results in an unusable mess. If that happens, try copying into your document using the web page version below. In addition to the template, the next section also has additional, worthwhile information.

How to Make Your Own Website Bookmark Web Page - Website Building the Easy Way



Going the website/web page building route will give you considerably more design capability.

Here is a webpage version of the Demo Bookmark Template (new tab). Only highlight and copy the portion between the lines, objective being to omit as much unnecessary HTML and unwanted attributes as possible.

If you are not already using a website design app or software, then Blogger/Blogspot is free and easy to use; no degree in rocket surgery required. It is also run by Google and so will be around for awhile.

Since you are creating this template site for your own personal use, you will probably only have the one post. You will frequently re-edit it as desired.

Once you've created the blog and are ready to do the post, it's pretty straightforward. After copying over the template into your new post, just type in and arrange your additional destination titles as desired. You don't have to do all of them at once. Start with your most frequently visited websites. No problem leaving the post open in edit mode as you are visiting the other sites.Then, as you are visiting your sites, take a moment to copy/paste the URL into your titles.

Always set the link to open in a new tab. The planned routine, once you have everything set up, is for the bookmark page tab to always be open and available at the far left.

In layout mode, do enable (if it isn't already) the navbar you will see at top-right. This way, you have one-click access to re-edit your page whenever you wish to add another URL.

A Blogger/Blogspot editor note. When attempting to space from an existing link to add text in preparation for the next link in the row, the editor extends the hyperlink attribute into the space. To circumvent, don't do the space; hit enter instead. Then enter your space and text on the new line. Then go back to the end of the previous line and hit delete to bring your new line up to the existing line. It will then be as it should be.

Last, but not least, organize everything so all your bookmarks will fit on a single screen. Your objective is convenience, having to scroll all the time would defeat that purpose.

Once published, set the page as your new browser home.

Privacy Options

You can restrict public access to your bookmarks page to whatever degree you wish. You will find the privacy options under Settings on the left-side menu when in design mode.

No matter what privacy settings you use, do keep in mind the internet is the internet. So it would be wise to not include bookmark links to such things as your bank, credit card, or utility accounts. For that matter, such links should not be on your browser bookmark list either. Those links can be accessible to any malware that might happen along.

Other Blogger/Blogspot Options

For those who are not already familiar with Blogger/Blogspot, the platform has all sorts of other capabilities. Some of those capabilities include:
  • Displaying ads and earning part of the revenue
  • Adding 3rd party HTML/JavaScript
  • Images
  • Videos
  • News feeds
  • Lots more
And if you know basic HTML, you can create templates and bookmarks pages like this webpage example or this webpage example.

Some Final Thoughts...

Once the bookmarks manager page was set up the way I wanted it, my overall efficiency had a marked increase. Somehow, it caused me to become a real tab management pro. Projects involving repeated, multiple website access were not only easy and quick to do; they were fun again.

And besides, any bookmark manager webpage or website you create and customize exactly the way you want can't help but be:
  • 10 times better than anything Mozilla Firefox could come up with.
  • 10 times better than anything Google Chrome could come up with.
  • 10 times better than anything Microsoft Explorer could come up with.
  • 10 times better than Safari or any other prefabricated, standardized, generic website could come up with.
  • 10 times better than anything a third-party vendor could come up with, simply because only you really know what you want.


Base 2, 4, 8, 16 to Base 10

Base 2, 4, 8, 16 Number System Lessons for Binary, Quaternary, Octal, and Hexadecimal

(HAL says hi.)


Introduction and Start of Base Number Systems Tutorial

These four base numbering system lessons use the exact, same teaching methodology. As such, when you have learned one, you will have learned them all. There is also some repetitiveness, so as to reduce needed reverse scrolling. Comparisons of different base number systems can also prove useful.

If you understand the everyday, base 10 decimal number system we all use; then you already understand the base 2, base 4, base 8, and base 16 numbering systems. You just don’t know that you know yet.

As you know, we use the decimal (base 10) numbering system in our day-to-day lives. Base 10 has ten numbers (0-9) and orders of magnitude that are times ten. The lowest-order number represents itself times one. The next-order number represents itself times ten. The next order number represents itself times 10 x 10 or itself times 100. The next order number represents itself times 10 x 10 x 10 or itself times 1000. And so on.

An example would be the number 7824. This number means there are:
  • Four 1’s,
  • two 10’s,
  • eight 100’s,
  • and seven 1000's.
Which represents 4 + 20 + 800 + 7000; for a total of 7824.

Tutorial continues below at the base numbering system lesson of your choice...

Table of Contents

(A base-5-quinary tutorial is also available on a separate, standalone page.)

Lessons and examples follow or select from Table of Contents.



.

Base 2 to Base 10 – How to Do and Convert Base 2 to/from Base 10 – Binary Number System Conversions – Includes Examples

0's and 1's
How to Do Binary, Base 2 Number System Conversions.
Includes Examples.

Binary code is the basis of all digital technology; strings of 1’s and 0’s. The different combinations of 1’s and 0’s are how the technology tells itself what to do.

Here is everything you need to know on how to convert from binary code aka base 2 to decimal. And for converting from decimal aka base 10 to binary.

As previously stated: if you understand the decimal (base 10) number system you use every day, then you already understand the binary (base 2) numbering system.

And for folks who entered the search phrase: what is yes in binary? The answer is:
  • 1 is yes or indicates true in binary.
  • 0 is no or indicates false in binary.

How to Do the Binary Base 2 Numbering System

Per the introduction, base 10 has ten numbers (0-9) and orders of magnitude that are times ten. The orders of magnitude are l, 10, 100 (10x10) , 1000 (10x10x10), etc.

An example would be the number 497. This number means that there are:
  • Seven 1’s,
  • nine 10’s,
  • and four 100’s.
Which represents 7 +90 +400; for a total of 497.

The binary, base 2 numerical system (0's and 1's) uses the same structure, the only difference being the order of magnitude. Base 2 has two numbers (0-1) and orders of magnitude that are times two. The lowest-order number represents itself times one. The next order number represents itself times two. The next order number represents itself times 2x2 or itself times 4. The next order number represents itself times 2x2x2 or itself times 8. The next order number represents itself as 2x2x2x2 or itself times 16, And so on.

Orders of Magnitude in Base 2

1 · 2 · 4 · 8 · 16 · 32 · 64 · 128 · 256 · 512· 1024 · 2448 · 4096 · 8192

Positional

8192 · 4096 · 2048 · 1024 · 512 · 256 · 128 · 64 · 32 · 16 · 8 · 4 · 2 · 1

A basic, first example of a binary number would be the base 2 number 11111. This would mean there is:
  • one 1,
  • one 2,
  • one 4,
  • one 8,
  • and one 16.
Which represents 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16; for a total of 31 in Base 10 decimal.

Another base 2 example would be the binary number 101. This number means that there are:
  • one 1’s,
  • no 2’s,
  • and one 4’s.
Which represents 1 + 0 + 4; for a total of 5 in decimal.

Another base 2 example would be the binary number 10110. This number means that there are:
  • no 1’s,
  • one 2’s,
  • one 4’s,
  • no 8’s,
  • and one 16.
Which represents 0 + 2 + 4 + 0 + 16; for a total of 22 in decimal.

Orders of Magnitude in Base 2

1 · 2 · 4 · 8 · 16 · 32 · 64 · 128 · 256 · 512· 1024 · 2448 · 4096 · 8192

Positional

8192 · 4096 · 2048 · 1024 · 512 · 256 · 128 · 64 · 32 · 16 · 8 · 4 · 2 · 1

More Binary (Base 2) to Decimal (Base 10) Conversion Examples

Column headings in the following table are simply a convenience relist of the relevant positional orders of magnitude as applies to each column. There is no significance attached as to where one column ends and the next one begins.

-----------------------------
-----------------------------
------------------------------
8 · 4 · 2 · 1
16 · 8 · 4 · 2 · 1
64 · 32 · 16 · 8 · 4 · 2 · 1
0=0
1101=13
11010=26
1=1
1110=14
11011=27
10=2
1111=15
11100=28
11=3
10000=16
11101=29
100=4
10001=17
11110=30
101=5
10010=18
11111=31
110=6
10011=19
100000=32
111=7
10100=20
100001=33
1000=8
10101=21
100010=34
1001=9
10110=22
100011=35
1010=10
10111=23
100100=36
1011=11
11000=24
100101=37
1100=12
11001=25
100110=38




.

Base 4 to Base 10 – How to Do and Convert Base 4 to/from Base 10 – Quaternary Number System Conversions – Includes Examples

0 1 2 3
How to Do Quaternary, Base 4 Number System Conversions.
Includes Examples.

Base 4, also known as the quaternary number system, is predominantly used in DNA genotyping and some electronics applications, etc.

This lesson gives you everything you need to know for converting from quaternary aka base 4 to decimal and for converting from decimal aka base 10 to quaternary. If you understand the decimal number system,or the binary (base 2) numbering system for that matter, then you already understand the quaternary (base 4) number system.

Per the introduction, base 10 has ten numbers (0-9) and orders of magnitude that are times ten. The orders of magnitude are l, 10, 100 (10x10) , 1000 (10x10x10), etc.

An example would be the number 7112. This number means that there are:
  • two 1’s,
  • one 10’s,
  • one 100’s
  • and seven 1000’s.
Which represents 2 + 100 + 100 + 7000; for a total of 7112.

How to Do the Quaternary Base 4 Numbering System


Base 4 uses the same base 10 structure, the only difference being the orders of magnitude. Base 4 has four numbers (0-3) and orders of magnitude that are times four . The lowest-order number represents itself times one. The next-order number represents itself times four. The next order number represents itself times 4x4 or itself times 16. The next order number represents itself times 4x4x4 or itself times 64. The next order number represents itself times 4x4x4x4 or itself times 256. And so on.

Orders of Magnitude in Base 4

1 · 4 · 16 · 64 · 256 · 1024· 4096 · 16384

Positional

16384 · 4096 · 1024 · 256 · 64 · 16 · 4 · 1

A basic, first example of a quaternary number would be the base 4 number 11111. This would mean there is:
  • one 1,
  • one 4,
  • one 16,
  • one 64,
  • and one 256.
Which represents 1 + 4 + 16 + 64 + 256; for a total of 341 in Base 10 decimal.

Another base 4 example would be the quaternary number 321. This number means that there are:
  • one 1’s,
  • two 4’s,
  • and three 16’s.
Which represents 1 + 8 + 48; for a total of 57 in decimal.

Another base 4 example would be the quaternary number 3023. This number means that there are:
  • three 1’s,
  • two 4’s,
  • no 16’s,
  • and three 64’s.
Which represents 3 + 8 + 0 + 192; for a total of 203 in decimal.

Orders of Magnitude in Base 4

1 · 4 · 16 · 64 · 256 · 1024· 4096 · 16384

Positional

16384 · 4096 · 1024 · 256 · 64 · 16 · 4 · 1

More Quaternary (Base 4) to Decimal (Base 10) Conversion Examples

Column headings in the following table are simply a convenience relist of the relevant positional orders of magnitude as applies to each column.

------------------------------
------------------------------
------------------------------
4 · 1
16 · 4 · 1
64 · 16 · 4 · 1
0=0
21=9
200=32
1=1
22=10
222=42
2=2
23=11
223=43
3=3
30=12
333=63
10=4
33=15
1000=64
11=5
100=16
1100=80
12=6
102=18
2000=128
13=7
120=24
2030=140
20=8
122=26
3122=218




.

Base 8 to Base 10 – How to Do and Convert Base 8 to/from Base 10 – Octal Number System Conversions – Includes Examples

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
How to Do Octal, Base 8 Number System Conversions.
Includes Examples.

Base 8, also known as the octal number system, is mostly used in electronics and some DNA applications, etc.

Here is everything you need to know on how to convert from octal aka base 8 to decimal. And for converting from decimal aka base 10 to octal.

As previously stated: if you understand the decimal (base 10) number system you use every day, then you already understand the octal (base 8) numbering system.

Per the introduction, base 10 has ten numbers (0-9) and orders of magnitude that are times ten. The orders of magnitude are l, 10, 100 (10x10) , 1000 (10x10x10), etc.

An example would be the number 2375. This number means that there are:
  • five 1’s,
  • seven 10’s,
  • three 100’s
  • and two 1000’s.
Which represents 5 + 70 + 300 + 2000; for a total of 2375.

How to Do the Octal Base 8 Numbering System


Base 8 uses the same base 10 structure, the only difference being the orders of magnitude. Base 8 has eight numbers (0-7) and orders of magnitude that are times eight. The lowest-order number represents itself times one. The next-order number represents itself times eight. The next order number represents itself times 8x8 or itself times 64. The next order number represents itself times 8x8x8 or itself times 512. And so on.

Orders of Magnitude in Base 8

1 · 8 · 64 · 512 · 4096 · 32768 · 262144

Positional

262144 · 32768 · 4096 · 512 · 64 · 8 · 1

A basic, first example of an octal number would be the base 8 number 11111. This would mean there is:
  • one 1,
  • one 8,
  • one 64,
  • one 512,
  • and one 4096.
Which represents 1 + 8 + 64 + 512 + 4096; for a total of 4681 in Base 10 decimal.

Another base 8 example would be the octal number 321. This number means that there are:
  • one 1’s,
  • two 8’s,
  • and three 64’s.
Which represents 1 + 16 + 192; for a total of 209 in decimal.

Another base 8 example would be the octal number 4075. This number means that there are:
  • five 1’s,
  • seven 8’s,
  • no 64’s,
  • and four 512’s.
Which represents 5 + 56 + 0 + 2048; for a total of 2109 in decimal.

Orders of Magnitude in Base 8

1 · 8 · 64 · 512 · 4096 · 32768 · 262144

Positional

262144 · 32768 · 4096 · 512 · 64 · 8 · 1

More Octal (Base 8) to Decimal (Base 10) Conversion Examples

Column headings in the following table are simply a convenience relist of the relevant positional orders of magnitude as applies to each column.

------------------------------
------------------------------
------------------------------
8 · 1
8 · 1
512 · 64 · 8 · 1
0=0
15=13
100=64
1=1
16=14
165=117
2=2
17=15
200=128
7=7
20=16
534=348
10=8
25=21
1000=512
11=9
34=28
1100=576
12=10
50=40
2000=1024
13=11
55=45
2006=1030
14=12
77=63
2011=1033




.

Base 16 to Base 10 – How to Do and Convert Base 16 to/from Base 10 – Hexadecimal Number System Conversions – Includes Examples

Hex: 0-9, A a, B b, C c, D d, E e, F f
How to Do Hexadecimal, Base 16 Number System Conversions.
Includes Examples.

Hexadecimal (base 16) is the primary base numbering system used by computer programmers. Hex code is used in everything from core dumps to color codes and everything in-between.

Per the introduction, base 10 has ten numbers (0-9) and orders of magnitude that are times ten. The orders of magnitude are l, 10, 100 (10x10) , 1000 (10x10x10), etc.

An example would be the number 5681. This number means there are:
  • one 1’s,
  • eight 10’s,
  • six 100’s,
  • and five 1000’s.
Which represents 1 + 80 + 600 + 5000; for a total of 5681.

Base 16 uses the same base 10 structure, the only difference being the orders of magnitude.

How to Do the Hexadecimal Base 16 Numbering System


Beware Miscalculations
The orders of magnitude are times sixteen. The lowest-order number represents itself times one. The next-order number represents itself times sixteen. The next order number represents itself times 16x16 or itself times 256. The next order number represents itself times 16x16x16 or itself times 4096. And so on.

Hexadecimal Orders of Magnitude:

1 · 16 · 256 · 4096 · 65536 · 1048576

Positional:

1048576 · 65536 · 4096 · 256 · 16 · 1

Base 16 aka hex has sixteen numbers (0-F). The first ten numbers are the usual 0 thru 9. The next six numbers are A=10, B=11, C=12, D=13, E=14, F=15.

Altogether we have:
0=0, 1=1, 2=2, 3=3, 4=4, 5=5, 6=6, 7=7, 8=8, 9=9,
A=10, B=11, C=12, D=13, E=14, F=15.


A basic, first example of a hexadecimal number would be the base 16 number 11111. This would mean there is:
  • one 1,
  • one 16,
  • one 256,
  • one 4096,
  • and one 65536.
Which represents 1 + 16 + 256 + 4096 + 65536; for a total of 69905 in Base 10 decimal.

Another base 16 example would be the hex number 5C7F. This number means there are:
  • fifteen 1’s,
  • seven 16’s,
  • twelve 256’s,
  • and five 4096’s.
Which represents 15 +112 +3072 + 20480; for a total of 23679 in decimal.

Another base 16 example would be the hex number D24A. This number means there are:
  • ten 1’s,
  • four 16’s,
  • two 256’s,
  • and thirteen 4096’s.
Which represents 10 +64 +512 + 53248; for a total of 53834 in decimal.

Hexadecimal Orders of Magnitude

1 · 16 · 256 · 4096 · 65536 · 1048576

Positional

1048576 · 65536 · 4096 · 256 · 16 · 1

More Hexadecimal (Base 16) to Decimal (Base 10) Conversion Examples

Column headings in the following table are simply a convenience relist of the relevant positional orders of magnitude as applies to each column. There is no significance attached as to where one column ends and the next one begins.
A=10, B=11, C=12, D=13, E=14, F=15
---------------------------
---------------------------
------------------------------
16 · 1
256 · 16 · 1
65536 · 4096 · 256 · 16 · 1
0=0
16=22
101=257
1=1
17=23
111=273
2=2
1A=26
200=512
9=9
1C=28
3E4=996
A=10
1F=31
3E8=1000
B=11
20=32
BAD=2989
F=15
21=33
FFF=4095
10=16
27=39
1000=4096
11=17
2A=42
1004=4100
12=18
77=119
2BAD=11181
13=19
BD=189
DEAD=57005
14=20
FF=255
10000=65536
15=21
100=256
10100=65792

Simply a Sequential List of Hexadecimal Numbers

Table created using the Microsoft Excel formula: “=DEC2HEX(cell address here)”.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 3A 3B 3C 3D 3E 3F 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 5A 5B 5C 5D 5E 5F 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 6A 6B 6C 6D 6E 6F 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 7A 7B 7C 7D 7E 7F 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 8A 8B 8C 8D 8E 8F 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 9A 9B 9C 9D 9E 9F A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 AA AB AC AD AE AF B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 BA BB BC BD BE BF C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 CA CB CC CD CE CF D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 DA DB DC DD DE DF E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 EA EB EC ED EE EF F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FA FB FC FD FE FF 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 10A 10B 10C 10D 10E 10F 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 11A 11B 11C 11D 11E 11F 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 12A 12B 12C 12D 12E 12F 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 13A 13B 13C 13D 13E 13F 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 14A 14B 14C 14D 14E 14F 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 15A 15B 15C 15D 15E 15F 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 16A 16B 16C 16D 16E 16F 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 17A 17B 17C 17D 17E 17F 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 18A 18B 18C 18D 18E 18F 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 19A 19B 19C 19D 19E 19F 1A0 1A1 1A2 1A3 1A4 1A5 1A6 1A7 1A8 1A9 1AA 1AB 1AC 1AD 1AE 1AF 1B0 1B1 1B2 1B3 1B4 1B5 1B6 1B7 1B8 1B9 1BA 1BB 1BC 1BD 1BE 1BF 1C0 1C1 1C2 1C3 1C4 1C5 1C6 1C7 1C8 1C9 1CA 1CB 1CC 1CD 1CE 1CF 1D0 1D1 1D2 1D3 1D4 1D5 1D6 1D7 1D8 1D9 1DA 1DB 1DC 1DD 1DE 1DF 1E0 1E1 1E2 1E3 1E4 1E5 1E6 1E7 1E8 1E9 1EA 1EB 1EC 1ED 1EE 1EF 1F0 1F1 1F2 1F3 1F4 1F5 1F6 1F7 1F8 1F9 1FA 1FB 1FC 1FD 1FE 1FF 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 20A 20B 20C 20D 20E 20F 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 21A 21B 21C 21D 21E 21F 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 22A 22B 22C 22D 22E 22F 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 23A 23B 23C 23D 23E 23F 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 24A 24B 24C 24D 24E 24F 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 25A 25B 25C 25D 25E 25F 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 26A 26B 26C 26D 26E 26F 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 27A 27B 27C 27D 27E 27F 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 28A 28B 28C 28D 28E 28F 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 29A 29B 29C 29D 29E 29F 2A0 2A1 2A2 2A3 2A4 2A5 2A6 2A7 2A8 2A9 2AA 2AB 2AC 2AD 2AE 2AF 2B0 2B1 2B2 2B3 2B4 2B5 2B6 2B7 2B8 2B9 2BA 2BB 2BC 2BD 2BE 2BF 2C0 2C1 2C2 2C3 2C4 2C5 2C6 2C7 2C8 2C9 2CA 2CB 2CC 2CD 2CE 2CF 2D0 2D1 2D2 2D3 2D4 2D5 2D6 2D7 2D8 2D9 2DA 2DB 2DC 2DD 2DE 2DF 2E0 2E1 2E2 2E3 2E4 2E5 2E6 2E7 2E8 2E9 2EA 2EB 2EC 2ED 2EE 2EF 2F0 2F1 2F2 2F3 2F4 2F5 2F6 2F7 2F8 2F9 2FA 2FB 2FC 2FD 2FE 2FF 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 30A 30B 30C 30D 30E 30F 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 31A 31B 31C 31D 31E 31F 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 32A 32B 32C 32D 32E 32F 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 33A 33B 33C 33D 33E 33F 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 34A 34B 34C 34D 34E 34F 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 35A 35B 35C 35D 35E 35F 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 36A 36B 36C 36D 36E 36F 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 37A 37B 37C 37D 37E 37F 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 38A 38B 38C 38D 38E 38F 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 39A 39B 39C 39D 39E 39F 3A0 3A1 3A2 3A3 3A4 3A5 3A6 3A7 3A8 3A9 3AA 3AB 3AC 3AD 3AE 3AF 3B0 3B1 3B2 3B3 3B4 3B5 3B6 3B7 3B8 3B9 3BA 3BB 3BC 3BD 3BE 3BF 3C0 3C1 3C2 3C3 3C4 3C5 3C6 3C7 3C8 3C9 3CA 3CB 3CC 3CD 3CE 3CF 3D0 3D1 3D2 3D3 3D4 3D5 3D6 3D7 3D8 3D9 3DA 3DB 3DC 3DD 3DE 3DF 3E0 3E1 3E2 3E3 3E4 3E5 3E6 3E7 3E8 3E9 3EA 3EB 3EC 3ED 3EE 3EF 3F0 3F1 3F2 3F3 3F4 3F5 3F6 3F7 3F8 3F9 3FA 3FB 3FC 3FD 3FE 3FF 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 40A 40B 40C 40D 40E 40F 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 41A 41B 41C 41D 41E 41F 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 42A 42B 42C 42D 42E 42F 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 43A 43B 43C 43D 43E 43F 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 44A 44B 44C 44D 44E 44F 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 45A 45B 45C 45D 45E 45F 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 46A 46B 46C 46D 46E 46F 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 47A 47B 47C 47D 47E 47F 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 48A 48B 48C 48D 48E 48F 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 49A 49B 49C 49D 49E 49F 4A0 4A1 4A2 4A3 4A4 4A5 4A6 4A7 4A8 4A9 4AA 4AB 4AC 4AD 4AE 4AF 4B0 4B1 4B2 4B3 4B4 4B5 4B6 4B7 4B8 4B9 4BA 4BB 4BC 4BD 4BE 4BF 4C0 4C1 4C2 4C3 4C4 4C5 4C6 4C7 4C8 4C9 4CA 4CB 4CC 4CD 4CE 4CF 4D0 4D1 4D2 4D3 4D4 4D5 4D6 4D7 4D8 4D9 4DA 4DB 4DC 4DD 4DE 4DF 4E0 4E1 4E2 4E3 4E4 4E5 4E6 4E7 4E8 4E9 4EA 4EB 4EC 4ED 4EE 4EF 4F0 4F1 4F2 4F3 4F4 4F5 4F6 4F7 4F8 4F9 4FA 4FB 4FC 4FD 4FE 4FF 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 50A 50B 50C 50D 50E 50F 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 51A