Showing posts with label Auto. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Auto. Show all posts

### MPH to FPS: Mental Math Calculation Conversion Formula for Miles per Hour to Feet per Second

Latest update: January 10, 2023. Page URL indicates original publication date; meanwhile, times change and the updates continue.

### - The Quick and Easy Math Trick Formula Equation -

Simply divide miles-per-hour by 2, then multiply the result by 3 to find feet-per-second.

This is the easy, quick math formula or equation to use and gives a usable, fairly accurate answer. Your answer will be accurate within 5%. As an example, 100 mph converts to 150 fps. If one does the more complicated method of math calculation (detailed further down the page), the resulting answer would be 147 fps.

 "How many feet per second..."  is a math question usually relating to cars and driving.

### Easy Table Conversion from MPH to FPS Examples Chart

Divide by 2, then multiply by 3.
 MPH FPS 10 15 15 22.5 20 30 25 37.5 30 45 35 52.5 40 60 45 67.5 50 75 55 82.5 60 90 65 97.5 70 105 75 112.5 80 120 90 135 100 150 120 180 140 210 160 240

### The More Difficult (and More Accurate) Answer

To prove the quick math shortcut conversion calculation works:
1. First. convert MPH (miles-per-hour) to MPM (miles-per-minute) by dividing MPH by 60.
2. Then convert miles to feet. There are 5,280 feet in one mile, so multiply MPM by 5,280 to get FPM (feet-per-minute).
3. Lastly, convert FPM to FPS (feet-per-second) by dividing by 60.

### Examples of the Longhand Math Converting Miles-per-Hour (MPH) to Feet-per-Second (FPS)

#### MPH to FPS Math Conversion Example One

You're going 25 mph. How many feet is that per second?
1. Conversion from mph to fps is as follows: If we divide by 60, we get miles-per-minute (mpm): 25/60 = .416667.
2. For accuracy's sake, now is a good time to convert miles to feet. There are 5,280 feet in a mile so we multiply mpm times 5,280 to get feet-per-minute: 416667 x 5280 = ~2199.99 feet-per-minute [note: "~" means approximate].
3. To convert from feet-per-minute to feet-per-second (fps), we divide the answer by 60: 2199.99/60 = ~36.667 feet-per second.
4. This answer is within 5% of the one you get doing the mental easy math way, which says 25 mph divided by 2 and then multiplied by 3 equals 37.5 fps.

#### MPH to FPS Math Conversion Example Two

65 mph. How many feet per second?
1. Conversion from mph to fps is as follows: If we divide by 60, we get miles-per-minute: 65/60 = 1.0843333333333.This makes sense. After all, 60 miles an hour is the well-known mile-a-minute.
2. For accuracy's sake, now is a good time to convert miles to feet. There are 5,280 feet in a mile, so we multiply the miles-per-minute times 5,280 to get feet-per-minute: 1.0843333333333 x 5280 = ~5725.28 feet-per-minute.
3. To convert from feet-per-minute to feet-per-second, we divide the answer by 60: 5725.28/60 = ~95.421 feet-per second, which is the answer.
4. This coincides within 5% of the table above, which says 65 mph equals 97.5 fps.

#### MPH to FPS Math Conversion Example Three

120 mph is how many feet per second? Conversion from mph to fps is as follows.
1. If we divide by 60, we get miles-per-minute: 120/60 = 2.000. This again makes sense; 60 miles an hour is the usual mile-a-minute. So 120 mph would be 2-miles-a-minute.
2. To convert miles to feet. There are 5,280 feet in a mile, so we multiply the miles-per-minute times 5,280 to get feet-per-minute: 2 x 5280 = ~10560 feet-per-minute.
3. To convert from feet-per-minute to feet-per-second, we divide the answer by 60: 10560/60 = ~176 feet-per second.
4. This number is within 5% of the table above which says 120 mph equals 180 fps.

### The Reverse FPS to MPH Math Conversion Examples

Quick way to find reverse, i.e., convert from feet-per-second to miles-per hour: divide fps by 3 and then multiply by 2 for mph.

### Easy Table Conversion from FPS to MPH Examples Chart

 FPS MPH 10 6.67 20 13.33 25 16.67 40 26.68 50 33.33 75 50 100 66.67 150 100 200 133.33 500 333.33 1000 666.67

### Doing 20 miles-per-hour? That is 30 feet-per-second.

 The laws of physics seldom take a vacation. Most of these cars would not be able to stop in time.

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### Driving: How to Control Car in a Panic Stop and Avoid a Collision

Latest update: April 16, 2023. Page URL indicates original publication date; meanwhile, times change and the updates continue.

Here is how to avoid rear-ending the car in front of you when the emergency panic stop is "too late". A true story.

## Preventing Panic Stop Collisions - It Can Be Done

 The '82 Camaro That Lived to Tell the TaleThis happened around three decades ago. Not something one soon forgets.The method still works.

Am doing the speed limit in downtown traffic. Needed to get gas. I squint at the Food Mart gas prices sign across the street on the left. Why do they make the numbers so small? All the other places have normal-sized numbers. I squint and squint…

Suddenly an ambulance siren goes off. I jerk my eyes to the front. All the traffic had stopped dead in front of me because an ambulance coming from the opposite direction had been using its red lights without the siren. And when I say stopped dead in front of me, I mean up close and personal. It was all over.

I slam on the brakes. Way too late. Less than 2-3 seconds to impact. My car and the poor guy's car in front of me are about to get totaled. Time really does slow to a standstill…

And then I remembered something I had heard or read a long time ago.

With the brakes still locked, I semi-rapidly turn the steering wheel to the right towards the curb. The car actually goes where I tell it to go. That's right, whether ABS or solidly locked wheels; where you tell the car to go, the car will go. Needless to say, don't yank the steering wheel, you don't want to possibly flip the car or slide sideways.

My car is no longer aimed at the reprieved guy in front of me. I finally come to a stop beside the other guy's car and short of the curb. Had to backup to get back into the lane. A very lucky happy ending.

Car Traffic Safety Rule #1 If something that is not in front of you is too hard to see, don't even try. You never know what suddenly might be happening in front of you. Needless to say, this rule is obvious and known to everyone and only included as a reminder.

Car Driving Tip #1 Even when the wheels are locked, your car will still go where you tell it to go. All you need is the presence of mind to turn that steering wheel. It is having this experience happen that caused me to write this article. It is hoped this knowledge will serve you well. An update: don't jerk the steering wheel, just turn it at the normal rate. Turning the steering wheel at a harder and faster rate produces a different result; usually your car will end up broadside to whatever is in front of you. This would not have worked in the above described incident; too little time, and not enough front, side, or width room.

## Innate Response and Never Give Up

While writing the first story another story came to mind. This one happened between three and four decades ago.

 A road very similar to this one, but still slick from the rain; good thing that tanker truck wasn't around.

Booming down the hill on a country highway. Doing 60. Am even at legal speed.The rain had finally stopped.

Someone waiting in a white pickup truck suddenly floors it from a cross-street on the right; loses control, spins around, stalls.

There he sits. Right in front of me. 60 mph, two seconds to impact...

Hard right. Hard left. I coasted for the next half mile, recovering from the near miss.

It was an innate response. At 60 mph and at that distance, one just knows when there is not even time to hit the brakes. Cars are designed not to flip. So at least try to steer your way out of it. After all, you have nothing to lose.

Car Driving Tip #2 It's not over 'til it's over. Keep trying until it is.

## Some Final Thoughts

In both of the above situations, given the speeds and distances involved, my automatic first response was exactly what most people would have done. We seem to be genetically programmed to automatically respond with the correct initial reaction in such situations. Unfortunately, life being what it is, that first initial reaction is not enough.

In both situations a second action was required to save the day. Unfortunately that action is not genetically programmed into us. It is something which has to be learned, which you have indeed now done.

In the first incident, most people would have rammed into the car; not knowing that simply turning the steering wheel could have saved the situation.

In the second incident, after making that first hard right turn, most people would have then run off the road; hitting whatever was around to be hit, or even worse, going off some version of a cliff or deep ravine. In fact, this seems to be a case where our genetic programming actually works against us. After the first reaction, most people then tend to freeze, i.e., mentally withdrawing from what is happening around them. One has to make the deliberate, conscious decision to "stay in the game". It's not over 'til it's over.

Take care.

And a separate, unrelated note. As you know, your computer and cellphone knows everything about you. Privacy has basically gone out the window. The same applies to your car. Modern cars collect all sorts of information about you. That information is not only stored, but is often shared with others. Here is an article from Mashable, it is not pretty: Your car knows too much about you. That could be a privacy nightmare.

 Controlling Emergency Panic Stops and Avoiding Collisions

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### How to Calculate Miles-per-Gallon (MPG) and Cost-per-Mile (CPM) Formula and Savings

Latest update: February 26, 2024. Page URL indicates original publication date; meanwhile, times change and the updates continue.

## Calculate Miles-per-Gallon and Cost-per-Mile Using Formula Templates

For folks who want accurate miles-per-gallon and cost-per-mile answers and savings.

For quick, easy answers; simply use the MPG and CPM formula templates below and you are done.

 What with the Russia-Ukraine situation, gas prices are expected to rise.
This page will serve you well if your gas gauge is broken, inaccurate, or otherwise giving you problems. Or if you just want to know how well your car is doing. Can also be used for possibly figuring out ways to improve your mileage.

Needless to say, one needs to know the miles driven, how much gas was used, and the price of the gas before the templates will be of any use to you. If you do not already have these numbers, Section I below has everything you need to know on how to get started.

### Distance Traveled Pre-calculation Template

New Odometer When Tank Refill  -  Old Odometer From Previous Refill  =  Miles Driven

As previously mentioned, if you are just looking for approximate answers, then you can simply use the templates and call it a day. If you are looking for the most real, accurate results possible and savings, see Section I.

### How to Calculate Miles per Gallon Formula Template

Miles Driven  /  Gallons Used  =  Miles-per-Gallon (MPG)

#### Example

1. You drove 100 miles and used 5 gallons of gas.
3. 100 miles traveled, divided by 5 gallons of gas used, gives you 20 miles per gallon.
4. 100/5 = 20 mpg.

### How to Calculate Gas Cost per Mile Formula Template

Price per Gallon  /  Miles per Gallon  =  Cost-per-Mile (CPM)

#### Example

1. You paid \$5 for a gallon of gas, and you get 10 miles-per-gallon (mpg).
3. \$5 paid, divided by 10 miles traveled per gallon (mpg), gives you \$.50 cost per mile.
4. 5/10 = \$.50 cost-per-mile

#### So what does the miles-per-gallon answer actually tell you? It tells you that...

• This particular vehicle,
• being mechanically maintained at a given level of efficiency,
• using a specific brand and grade of gasoline,
• being filled at a particular time of day,
• from a particular gas station and a particular pump at a particular  fill speed,
• and being driven a certain commute route,
• by a specific driver...
...gets so many miles per gallon.

## Real Miles-per Gallon Savings

If the numbers used to make the calculations are accurate, this can lead to some interesting experimentation. What if...
• A different gas station or pump was used? Not all stations and pumps are the same.
• A different pump fill speed was used?
• The tank was filled at a different time of day? Temperature affects fluid density, first thing in the morning is best; that is when the gas is coldest and most dense.
• A different brand and/or grade of gasoline was used? See Section II.
• A different commute route was tried?
• Deficiencies were found as to the vehicle's maintenance?
• The vehicle's ignition timing was experimented with (but staying within smog emission specifications)? See Section II.
• The driver notices and alters a particular driving habit?
Probably other ideas might also come to mind over time.

### Section I - Using a Reasonably Scientific Method and Mistakes to Avoid

If you are looking to get the most real, accurate results possible; this procedure will help you do that. If you are just looking for an approximation, then you can skip it all and fill in the templates with your existing numbers.
1. Pick a week, or other time period, when you will be doing your most typical driving pattern.
2. Have two pens and paper in the car.
3. Use the gas station you normally use. Fill the gas tank at your usual time. Note the pump number you are using. Note the pump speed you normally use. Do not top off. While waiting, write down your odometer reading, include tenths. If you have a trip-odometer, reset it to zero. Remember to not be distracted by all this to the point you forget to put back the gas cap.
4. Commence with your week; the usual work commute, errands, etc. Combining your work commute with errands will increase your gas mileage, but only do so if it is what you intend to usually do. Continue your routine until you have less than a quarter-tank. Don't strive for a gas-gauge reading of empty unless it is what you normally do.
5. Make sure you still have the pens and paper in your car.
7. Attempt to use the same pump number you used before. Set to the same pump speed as before. While waiting: write down your odometer reading; write down your trip-odometer reading; include tenths from both. When the pump-handle clicks: write down how many gallons; and very definitely include tenths. Write down the price you paid per gallon. Save the receipt; if the gas station is at least half-coordinated, some or all of this information will be printed there for you. Does it match what's showing on the pump? Do not top off. If so inclined, reset trip-odometer to zero. And the gas cap thing again...
8. Proceed with your normal routine. You'll do the calculations with the templates at your leisure.

### Section II - List of Notes About Fuel Economy, Improving Gas Mileage and Saving Money

Tune-ups and tire pressure: These are The Big Two as to getting the best mileage.
• Over-inflating tires increases gas mileage, but causes an immediate and significant increase in tire wear; so don't do that. Under-inflated tires reduces your mileage; and it doesn't do your sidewalls any good either.
• As for tune ups, spark plugs are especially important. A fouled or carbon-built-up plug reduces mileage drastically, not to mention it will probably cause you to flunk a smog check. A personal note: Two different mechanics quoted me a price of over \$100 to change a set of 6 spark plugs, plus the inflated cost of the plugs. In both cases, I departed the premises immediately. I ended up changing the plugs myself, it's not that hard to do. Buy yourself a Chilton or Haynes manual for your particular make and model of car, they have all sorts of useful information. Some auto parts stores even have tool-loaner programs if you don't want to buy your own. Depending on how the plugs are positioned, changing spark plugs can be an obnoxious task. However, there is no law that says one has to do them all at once. I just did one or two at a time when sufficiently motivated. As a side note, disconnecting more than one plug at a time is not a good idea; reconnection time can be a disaster waiting to happen.

Looking ahead and coasting to stop lights: Is a close third.

Speed: Once you are above 40 mph or so; the faster you go, the lower your mileage.

Weight: If you are carrying excess, unnecessary weight in the trunk, it will:
• Reduce mileage
• Increase engine wear and tear
• Wear out your brakes faster

Ethanol: Do you have ethanol-times-of-year versus non-ethanol-times-of-year? It can be interesting to make mileage comparisons between the two. You probably won't be happy with the ethanol results.

Gasoline Grade: Putting premium in a car that takes regular will do absolutely nothing for your mileage. However, if your car is in the midgrade octane category and what with there being some octane rating overlap, it might be worth experimenting with trying both the lower and higher octanes; especially if you are also experimenting with the ignition timing.

Temperature and humidity: Mileage is better during cooler times of the year than during heatwaves. And the higher the humidity, the better the mileage. Yes, one does get better mileage on rainy days.

Air filter: When is the last time you replaced the air filter? A clogged air filter does reduce mileage and can cause smog test problems.

Fuel density and time of day: As mentioned earlier, always fill your tank first thing in the morning. Fluid density is affected by temperature. The colder it is, the more gas you get per gallon.

Logbook: If so inclined, this is as good a time as any to start one, especially if you want to try any of the aforementioned experiments..

### A Couple of Relevant Federal Websites

I thought I'd include a couple of useful federal websites for future reference. Both are worth browsing the next time you have some time to kill.

If only urban freeway traffic looked like this...
From www.epa.gov/air-pollution-transportation. Has all sorts of links regarding vehicles and fuel efficiency and saving gas in general.

From www.fueleconomy.gov/trip. This goes directly to their trip calculator page. What makes this calculator unique is you can specify the make and model of car you are using or are curious about. In addition to the total fuel cost calculation, they throw in a map and text directions as well. The rest of the site is also worth browsing.

On a final note, here are a couple other auto-related articles.

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### How Much Platinum / Palladium / Rhodium in Catalytic Converters – And Approximate Worth

Latest update: June 11, 2024. Page URL indicates original publication date; meanwhile times change and the updates continue.

Platinum, rhodium and palladium are some of the elements known as platinum-group metals, otherwise known as PGMs.

 The PGMs reside in the honeycomb region of the catalytic converter. The much-older catalytic converters originally used pellets, before the more efficient and less expensive honeycomb design came into use.

The amounts and proportions of PGMs depends on the age and type of vehicle.
• Cars, light-duty trucks, and motorcycles average total is 2-6 grams.
• Larger-engine SUV's and trucks average total can range anywhere from 6-30 grams.
28.35 grams equals an avoirdupois ounce. 31.1 grams equals a troy ounce.

Gasoline-powered-vehicle catalytic converters use all three of the aforementioned metals (update: at current prices, I highly doubt rhodium is still being used). Diesel-powered-vehicle catalytic converters use only platinum and rhodium (update: rhodium usage for new vehicles is questionable). As a side note, PGMs are also in heavy demand in the electronics industries.

### How Much Is a Catalytic Converter Worth?

Depending on the age and type of vehicle, the PGMs in a catalytic converter can be worth anywhere from \$100 to a rare \$1,500 or more. The newer and/or smaller cars range from \$100-\$300. The larger and/or older vehicles could have catalytic converters worth \$600 and up. As for the \$1,500 and the rampant inflation, older vehicles with the original converter are becoming more and more valuable; something to consider when buying or selling an older vehicle. As a side note, oxygen sensors also use PGMs and have a recycle value. Hybrids can also have serious value.

Regarding the catalytic converter, keep in mind that what the PGMs are worth is not what you will be paid. There is the labor, cost of metal extraction, overhead, and the buyer's expected profit margin; not to mention the greed factor. It would also be wise to be able to prove ownership. Otherwise, a phone call might be being made inside while you are talking with the potential buyer outside. Driving in with the actual vehicle or at least the vehicle's paperwork will give you more legitimacy and probably even a higher price. Do extensively ask around and shop around. Whether a buyer or a seller, do be careful as to whom you associate with: Justice Department Announces Takedown of Nationwide Catalytic Converter Theft Ring.

As a general rule: the older the vehicle, the more PGMs present in the catalytic converter. Because of the high cost of PGMs, industry continually strives to reduce the amount necessary by the use of other metals and materials and/or design changes

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Needless to say, catalytic converter prices can fluctuate greatly; not only the value, but also the quantity and usage ratio of the three metals aren't exactly carved in stone either. Depending on the price and efficiency of each metal and/or its alloys, the composition and design the catalytic converter manufacturers use may change frequently. Then again, each change buries the manufacturer in the government bureaucracies of retesting, recertification, and no doubt many other laws and regulations; both federal and for each state. This could very well obstruct the manufactures from being able to quickly respond to PGM price changes. This would be especially applicable to after-market manufacturers.

Current prices for platinum and palladium can be found here, note the historical charts as well. Rhodium prices can be found here. Price information resources come and go. If the links stop working, a search will quickly find a new one.

It turns out the information to write this page was not easy to find. Fortunately, I stumbled across much of it buried in a government-archived article about catalytic converter cerium recovery written by the USGS. The article has more information scattered around about catalytic converters, what recyclers might be willing to pay for them, about platinum and the other PGMs, and other recycling information, etc. The prices stated in the government article are woefully obsolete, but the rest of the information is still valid.

 Platinum Nugget. Source: USGS

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### Best and Popular Car Websites

Latest update: May 7, 2024. Page URL indicates original publication date; meanwhile, times change and the updates continue.

There is not very much on this page. I only keep it around for personal use.

 Resource Description JDpower Consumer product information. Free. Consumer Reports Consumer product information and more. Free and fee based service.

Also includes some reliable oldies, but goodies.

 Resource Description GasPriceWatch Search gas prices. CarTalk Click & Clack. AutoRepair.About General information. Reserved - WiseGeek Information, Q&A. AskPatty Information, Q&A. Fuel Economy EPA mileage data and info. Insurance.ca.gov Insurance premiums/complaints info. NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

 Resource Description CarAndDriver Magazine. MotorTrend Magazine. RockAuto Parts and info. Reserved - kbb Kelly Blue Book. Auto-by-Tel Prices, more. Edmunds Car buying guide, includes prices, more. Reserved - CarFax Provides history of used cars. Cars Buy, sell, research, advice. pickapart Self-service auto recyclers, aka junkyard.

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