Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts

Full Moon and Other Lunar Events Calendar Schedule - Apogee - Perigee - Eclipse

When is the next full moon? Dates and times listed below.
Full Moon - All Images and Data from NASA

Apogee is when the moon is farthest from the earth.
Perigee is when the moon is closest to the earth.
Calculator (opens in new tab or window).
1 kilometer equals .621371 miles.
1 mile equals 1.60934 kilometers.

Year 2019 Moon Phases and Events Calendar

(Dates and Times UTC/GMT)
Time Zone Map to convert UTC/GMT to your time zone.
(Opens in new tab or window)

January 2019
  • 06 Su 01:28 New Moon
  • 06 Su 01:41 Partial Solar Eclipse
  • 09 We 04:29 Moon Apogee: 406100 km
  • 21 Mo 05:12 Total Lunar Eclipse
  • 21 Mo 05:16 Full Moon
  • 21 Mo 19:58 Moon Perigee: 357300 km
February 2019
  • 04 Mo 21:04 New Moon
  • 05 Tu 09:26 Moon Apogee: 406600 km
  • 19 Tu 09:06 Moon Perigee: 356800 km
  • 19 Tu 15:53 Full Moon
March 2019
  • 04 Mo 11:25 Moon Apogee: 406400 km
  • 06 We 16:04 New Moon
  • 19 Tu 19:47 Moon Perigee: 359400 km
  • 21 Th 01:43 Full Moon
April 2019
  • 01 Mo 00:14 Moon Apogee: 405600 km
  • 05 Fr 08:50 New Moon
  • 16 Tu 22:02 Moon Perigee: 364200 km
  • 19 Fr 11:12 Full Moon
  • 28 Su 18:20 Moon Apogee: 404600 km
May 2019
  • 04 Sa 22:45 New Moon
  • 13 Mo 21:53 Moon Perigee: 369000 km
  • 18 Sa 21:11 Full Moon
  • 26 Su 13:27 Moon Apogee: 404100 km
June 2019
  • 03 Mo 10:02 New Moon
  • 07 Fr 23:21 Moon Perigee: 368500 km
  • 17 Mo 08:31 Full Moon
  • 23 Su 07:50 Moon Apogee: 404500 km
July 2019
  • 02 Tu 19:16 New Moon
  • 02 Tu 19:23 Total Solar Eclipse
  • 05 Fr 04:54 Moon Perigee: 363700 km
  • 16 Tu 21:31 Partial Lunar Eclipse
  • 16 Tu 21:38 Full Moon
  • 21 Su 00:01 Moon Apogee: 405500 km
August 2019
  • 01 Th 03:12 New Moon
  • 02 Fr 07:08 Moon Perigee: 359400 km
  • 15 Th 12:29 Full Moon
  • 17 Sa 10:50 Moon Apogee: 406200 km
  • 30 Fr 10:37 New Moon
  • 30 Fr 15:57 Moon Perigee: 357200 km
September 2019
  • 13 Fr 13:32 Moon Apogee: 406400 km
  • 14 Sa 04:33 Full Moon
  • 28 Sa 02:27 Moon Perigee: 357800 km
  • 28 Sa 18:26 New Moon
October 2019
  • 10 Th 18:29 Moon Apogee: 405900 km
  • 13 Su 21:08 Full Moon
  • 26 Sa 10:41 Moon Perigee: 361300 km
  • 28 Mo 03:38 New Moon
November 2019
  • 07 Th 08:37 Moon Apogee: 405100 km
  • 12 Tu 13:34 Full Moon
  • 23 Sa 07:54 Moon Perigee: 366700 km
  • 26 Tu 15:06 New Moon
December 2019
  • 05 Th 04:09 Moon Apogee: 404400 km
  • 12 Th 05:12 Full Moon
  • 18 We 20:30 Moon Perigee: 370300 km
  • 26 Th 05:13 New Moon
  • 26 Th 05:18 Annular Solar Eclipse

Data calculations from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center by Fred Espenak and Sumit Dutta.

Best Unusual Moon Pictures / Images / Photos




Spectrum analysis of surface soil composition.

For folks interested in moon-planet conjunctions and more, there is NASA's SKYCAL.

How Much Does a Pint / Quart / Gallon Weigh in Pounds?

How Many and How to Calculate Pints, Quarts, Gallons to and from Pounds.

Alternate Titles or Questions

  • How to Convert Pints to Quarts to Gallons to and from Pounds
  • Volume to Weight Conversions or Weight to Volume Conversions – 8:4:1:8.
  • How many pounds in X pints, quarts, or gallons?
  • How much does X gallons, quarts, or pints weigh?
A list of most-searched-for questions and answers is included. Also a specific section relating to home water heaters size, volume, and weight.

Volume to Weight Conversions. Weight to Volume Conversions.
Simple math to convert or calculate pints, quarts, gallons, and pounds.

Be advised that this page is US-centric. As an example, this does not work in the UK where a pint is 1.25 pounds as opposed to US 1.044 pounds at room temperature (RT). There are also issues of temperature and density, both of which are addressed further down the page. The purpose of this page is for practical, everyday business-of-living uses only. For that, it will serve you well.

First – The Quick Answers to Volume Amounts and Ratios

Volume Definitions

  • 2 pints equals 1 quart.
  • 4 quarts equals 1 gallon.
  • 8 pints equals 1 gallon.

Or to Put It Another Way...

  • 1 quart equals 2 pints.
  • 1 gallon equals 8 pints.
  • 1 gallon equals 4 quarts

Converting Volume to Weight

Converting volume to weight has everything to do with the density of the liquid. Fortunately, this question usually has to do with:
  • How much does the gasoline in your gas tank or a gas can weigh?
  • How much does a specific container of water or other mostly-water grocery items weigh?
  • Questions relating to home water heater size, calculated water volume and the resulting weight.
The rule of thumb, and the expression to remember, is: "A pint's a pound the world around." The resulting estimates and extrapolations from this rule will serve you well for most everyday purposes.

Basic Formulas

  • A pint weighs a pound.
  • There are two pints in a quart, so a quart weighs 2 pounds.
  • There are four quarts in a gallon, so a gallon weighs 8 pounds. 
  • And the eight pints in a gallon, also weighing 8 pounds.
This pretty much answers the question. Here are some other typical examples...

Some Household Examples

  • A 1-quart bottle of Gatorade weighs 2 pounds. Note: there are 2 pints in a quart and 4 quarts in a gallon. As a side note: there are 16 fluid ounces in a pint, 32 fluid ounces in a quart; 1 and 2 pounds respectively.
  • A 2-liter bottle of Pepsi would convert to a weight of a little over 4 pounds. Note: A liter is slightly more than a quart.

Some gallon examples

  • A 1-gallon container would convert to a weight of 8 pounds.
  • A 5-gallon container weighs 40 pounds.
  • A 10-gallon container weighs 80 pounds.
  • A full, 25-gallon SUV gas tank means you are hauling around 200 pounds of fuel.
  • A typical city water tower can hold anywhere from 300,00 to 600,000 gallons of water, which converts to a weight of 2,400,000 to 4,800,000 pounds of water sitting on those "stilts".

The Density of the Liquid Significantly Affects the Rules Concerning Volume Conversion Calculations to Weight


A major component of converting fluid volume to a weight measurement is the density of the fluid. For gasoline, water, and most grocery items; the rule of a-pint's-a-pound will serve you just fine. However, as an example, the rule probably wouldn't work too well with any significant volume of engine oil. As an extreme example, the liquid metal/element mercury would totally throw the pint's-a-pound rule out the window. So of course would any molten metal or alloy.

In the interests of "full disclosure", fluid density is also affected by temperature. This is why many people fill their gas tank first thing in the morning. There is more gas per gallon at 50 degrees Fahrenheit than at 90 degrees Fahrenheit. It should be noted the percentage difference is in the low, single-digits.

List of Frequent Volume-to-Weight Conversion Q&A


The Most-Searched-for Questions and Answers for How Many Pounds

  • How much does 1.5 quarts weigh? Answer is 3 pounds.
  • How much does 2 quarts weigh? Answer is 4 pounds.
  • How much does 3 quarts weigh? Answer is 6 pounds.
  • How much does 5 quarts weigh? Answer is 10 pounds.
  • How much does 6 quarts weigh? Answer is 12 pounds.
  • How much does 10 quarts weigh? Answer is 20 pounds.
  • How much does 16 quarts weigh? Answer is 32 pounds.
  • How much does 5 gallons weigh? Answer is 40 pounds.
  • How much does 10 gallons weigh? Answer is 80 pounds.
  • How much does 15 gallons weigh? Answer is 120 pounds.
  • How much does 20 gallons weigh? Answer is 160 pounds.
  • How much does 50 gallons weigh? Answer is 400 pounds.
  • How much does 55 gallons weigh? Answer is 440 pounds.
  • How many pints is a pound? Answer is 1.0 pint.
  • How many quarts is a pound? Answer is 0.5 quarts.
  • How many gallons is a pound? Answer is 0.125 gallons.

The formulas for the volume of a sphere, the volume of a cube,
the volume of a cylinder, the volume of a rectangular prism.

More Water and Gasoline Volume-to-Weight Examples

Depending on what unit of measurement you use, volume will equal cubic English or cubic Metric; examples being cubic inches or cubic centimeters.

Side note: the tilde (~) is the mathematical symbol for approximate.

English

  • 29 cubic inches equals ~1 pint, which equals ~1 pound.
  • 58 cubic inches equals ~2 pints, which equals ~1 quart, which equals ~1/4 of a gallon, which equals ~2 pounds.
  • 231 cubic inches equals ~4 quarts, which equals 1 gallon, which equals 8 pounds.

Metric

Most of the world uses Metric. There is a reason for that. As an example, 1000 cubic centimeters equals one liter, 1000 grams equals one kilogram, etc.; all nice, neat, and tidy. The United States and others are trying to get with the program; Metric is already included with English measurement on most U.S. consumer items. It's only a matter of time.

How Much Does the Water Weigh in a Full Water Heater?
– Water Tank Size Volume Formula and Answers –

Serendipitous energy.gov page on everything about water heaters, including how to buy one.

How to Calculate the Weight of the Water in a Home Water Heater

How much does the total amount of water in a water heater weigh, volume to weight conversion.

From the above NASA chart we see the volume formula for a cylinder is V = (πd2h)/4.

Water tank heaters come in all sizes. For the purposes of this example, we will say the water tank heater has a measured height of approximately 54 inches; what with this, that, and the other, the water part is probably around 48". The diameter measured as 18"; what with insulation, etc., 16 probably works.

So,
d = 16
h = 48

Thus,
V = (3.14 * 16 * 16 * 48) divided by 4.

Since all numbers are inches, the answer will be in cubic inches. We reduce the formula as follows:
V = (3.14 * 256 * 48) divided by 4.
V = (3.14 * 12288)/4
V = 38514/4
V = 9646 cubic inches

231 cubic inches is equal to a gallon, so we divide 9646 by 231.
9646/231 = 41.76 gallons.

What with the inner measurements being estimates, looks like it is a 40 gallon water heater.
A gallon weighs 8 pounds.
So multiplying 40 times 8 gives 320.
A 40-gallon water heater contains 320 pounds of cold water.

Knowing the volume and weight of a 40-gallon water tank heater makes it easy to extrapolate the volume and weight of other water heaters.
  • 10 gallon water heater is 2310 cubic inches and the water weighs 80 pounds.
  • 20 gallon water heater is 4620 cubic inches and the water weighs 160 pounds.
  • 30 gallon water heater is 6930 cubic inches and the water weighs 240 pounds.
  • 40 gallon water heater is 9240 cubic inches and the water weighs 320 pounds.
  • 50 gallon water heater is 11550 cubic inches and the water weighs 400 pounds.
  • 80 gallon water heater is 18480 cubic inches and the water weighs 640 pounds.
  • 100 gallon water heater is 23100 cubic inches and the water weighs 800 pounds.
Do keep in mind the temperature versus density considerations and the expansion of water when heated, i.e., a fully hot water heater tank weighs slightly less than a cold or warm water tank heater that's been freshly refilled after water usage. The difference between hot and cold water density versus volume is significant enough that most water heaters have temperature/pressure relief valves and a drainage tube or pipe to compensate for this.

Converting Cubic Inches to Cubic Feet...

...and the corresponding volume and weight ratios. Surprising how much just one cubic foot of water weighs.

One cubic foot of water weighs ~60 pounds (59.844 pounds at room temperature).

A cubic foot is 12 inches times 12 inches times 12 inches. So 1728 cubic inches equals 1 cubic foot. To convert cubic inches to cubic feet, simply divide the cubic inches by 1728. So using the above examples, we would have
  • 2310 cubic inches equals 1.34 cubic feet equaling 10 gallons equaling 80 lb.
  • 4620 cubic inches equals 2.68 cubic feet equaling 20 gallons equaling 160 lb.
  • 6930 cubic inches equals 4.02 cubic feet equaling 30 gallons equaling 240 lb.
  • 9240 cubic inches equals 5.36 cubic feet equaling 40 gallons equaling 320 lb.
  • 11550 cubic inches equals 6.70 cubic feet equaling 50 gallons equaling 400 lb.
  • 18480 cubic inches equals 10.72 cubic feet equaling 80 gallons equaling 640 lb.
  • 23100 cubic inches equals 13.40 cubic feet equaling 100 gallons equaling 800 lb.
*I happened to stumble across this on Wikipedia: "Pound (mass), a unit of mass often abbreviated incorrectly as 'lbs' in plural. Abbreviations of units of measure do not use an 's' on the end for plural."

A side note. For anyone interested in doing their own quick calculations here or for anything and anywhere else and not wanting to bother with calling up a spreadsheet, etc., here's a handy Google Calculator. Opens in a separate tab or window. After arriving and before entering numbers, you will need to click its rectangular number-entry box first to get its attention.

May all your calculations be prosperous ones.

How to Remember Color Order of Spectrum and Rainbow

Remembering the list order of the rainbow and visible light color spectrum is easy: ROYGBIV.

Additional wavelength, rainbow, sunset, laser images and information resources were added afterwards for folks who might find them interesting. Images can be clicked to be enlarged. But first, The Quick and Easy Way to Remember Rainbow and Spectrum Colors...

An Introduction to Mr. Roy G. Biv


Mnemonic Trick to Remember Order of Colors in the Visible Light Spectrum and Rainbows

His name is Roy G. Biv.

Note the first letter of each color in the visible light color spectrum map above. If you can remember the name, Roy G. Biv, then you have accomplished your goal.

ROYGBIV - The Color List and Order of the Visible Light Spectrum and Rainbow

  • Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet.
If you are interested in more information about the visible spectrum, wavelengths, light, colors, etc.; there are all sorts of additional information and resources below.


The List and Order of Visible Spectrum Wavelengths


Visible light wavelengths.

Visible light wavelengths

  • Red: The lower and longer wavelengths.
  • Violet: The higher and shorter wavelengths.

An Expanded Electromagnetic Spectrum List

There really isn't that much more to it.
  • Gamma Rays
  • X-Rays
  • Infrared
  • Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet
  • Ultraviolet
  • Microwaves 
  • Radio Waves
Interesting how the visible spectrum is right in the middle. As a side note, there are two categories of ultraviolet light; long wave and short wave; UV lights can be purchased that radiate both wavelength ranges.

This is a good time to mention that ultraviolet light can permanently damage your eyes. Never stare directly at a UV light. The damage can occur over time. A mistake you make when you are 20 years old can come back to haunt you in your later years, For that matter, most people who wear glasses or contacts always get a UV-blocking coating on their lenses and/or contacts. And for those who use sunglasses, always buy a reputable that has the UV protection coating.

An Expanded Electromagnetic Wavelength Image

This image came from a NASA page with all sorts of additional information and resources on it, well worth a visit.



Rainbows - Nature's Natural Prisms

This NOAA/NASA page will tell you everything you would ever want to know about rainbows, how they are formed, etc. Rainbow images are free, public domain.

Symmetric rainbow


Double rainbow

Rainbow over the Gardner River Canyon near Mammoth NPS photo by Neal Herbert


Light Show Sunsets

This NOAA/NWS page explains the causes for the vivid sunsets we sometimes see. Sunset images are free, public domain.

Sunset image

Sunset image

Sunset image

Sunset image


Lasers - Otherwise Known as Light Waves With an Attitude

Here is an introductory page on How Lasers Work. Laser images are free, public domain.

Ground-to-Space Laser Calibration System
NASA page on ground-based systems to calibrate Earth observing sensors
measuring reflected radiance in low and geostationary orbits.

Simulation of Laser-Plasma Interaction
ALCF page on laser-plasma interactions and current projects.

Lasers Used in Duel Atomic Clock
NIST page on how lasers are used in atomic clocks.


The End

I hoped you liked the images and additional information resources. Feel free to use the images as desktop or other screen backgrounds, Pinterest pinning or other social media uses, etc.

So. What is the order of colors in a rainbow or the visible light spectrum? 😁

Gold and Fool's Gold - How to Field Test to Tell the Difference

Here are the reliable, quick and easy field test methods one can use on the spot to recognize real gold versus fool's gold.

Side note. After one has gotten what they came here for, do check out the federal USGS gold resource at the end of the article. All sorts of worthy information is there. Maybe this page should have been titled: Summer Time Gold Rush.

Crystal form of fool's gold.

Fool's Gold

Chemically known as iron pyrite or iron sulfide, the chemical symbol and formula being FeS2, representing the chemical composition of iron and sulfur. The symbol for gold is Au. Determining the difference between an iron-sulfur mineral rock and the metal element gold is straightforward.

List of Physical Observations and Tests on How to Discern Gold versus Fool's Gold

  • Both are yellow, but of different tones. Gold is golden to silvery yellow. Pyrite is pale to medium brassy yellow.
  • Gold shaped as crystals are rare. Pyrite shaped as crystals are common.
  • Gold is soft; fool's gold is not. Scratch the mineral with a knife blade. Gold is softer than pyrite and will be scratched or cut. Pyrite cannot be scratched. Beware, a mineral called chalcopyrite which looks like pyrite and can be scratched. However, its brassy, yellowish color will give it away.
  • Gold does not smell; fool's gold does. Forcefully rub the specimen with a hard object. Gold has no odor. Pyrite smells like sulfur or rotten eggs.
  • Gold is malleable; fool's gold is not. Strike the specimen with a steel hammer. Gold will flatten or change shape and is not known to break. Pyrite will give off sparks and generally act like any other hard rock hit with a hammer.

Iron Pyrite Crystals aka Iron sulfide Crystals, known as fool's gold.

And here is the federal USGS search query results for gold page; all sorts of interesting items and resources there as well. May your gold prospecting adventures be prosperous ones.

Entropy: Meaning, Concept, Examples in Everyday Life...

... and Why Do Things Go Wrong.

If you are looking for how entropy is an integral part of our lives, then you have found it. An alternate title for this page would be: The Reality of Entropy  - The Top 10 Ways Entropy Messes with Us.

Among other things, this page has two lists. There is a short-description list of examples as to ways entropy affects our daily lives. And then there is a long-description list of examples explaining exactly how entropy does this.


For some readers, this page will be humorous. For other readers, this page will be serious. Both perceptions are correct. And it should be noted there are more than 10 ways scattered around this page. Lucky us.

List of Examples of the Effects of Entropy in Our Daily Lives

  • Why do things break down? That's entropy.
  • Why is Murphy's Law so prevalent? That's entropy.
  • Why do things malfunction? That's entropy.
  • Why are we obstructed in everything we try to do? That's entropy.
  • Why are there a hundred times more mistakes than accomplishments? That's entropy.
  • Why are there a hundred times more failures than successes? That's entropy.

The Universe - Entropy Is the Built-in Randomness of Reality

What does entropy mean to humanity? Whenever a human or humankind in general tries to create order, entropy immediately begins to disassemble it. This is why any man-made object will immediately begin to deteriorate upon its completion. It does not matter if it's a newly manufactured stick of gum or a newly-constructed, 100-story skyscraper; the result is always the same. Entropy immediately begins doing everything in its power to render it useless, broken-down, and of no value.

Chaos and Entropy

"Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone." - Albert Einstein in The Evolution of Physics

Why Things Break – List of Examples of How Entropy Works and Some of Its Methodologies

How Entropy Uses Oxidation

One of entropy's favorite methods. With any physical item humankind creates, whether made of most metals or other materials, entropy will immediately start to change the object's chemical structure. In due course the object's chemical composition becomes such that the object's original purpose is no longer viable; plain, ordinary rust being the most well-known example. Another common example are liquids. Pretty much any liquid, whether relating to food or industrial manufacturing, begins to decompose and becomes useless fairly quickly when not immediately used for its intended purpose.

How Entropy Uses Gravity

Another favorite tool of entropy. Quite simply, entropy will keep pulling on each and every object until the object comes crashing down, no matter how long it takes. Entropy never quits. And the larger the object, the more forceful the gravity and the more determined entropy becomes. Breakage and injuries, whether animate or inanimate, are the norm.

How Entropy Uses Friction

Another tool of entropy. The more often used term for "friction" is "wear-and-tear". Every time an object is used, it is subjected to wear-and-tear. Sooner or later, the wear-and-tear renders the object no longer usable. Cars and other vehicles being the most well-known examples. However, entropy's industriousness is also equally busy with all other manufactured machinery as well. There does happen to be one scenario where friction is a good thing, but this website is not going to go there.

How Entropy Uses Contamination

One of entropy's often used tools. This is where entropy uses one class of objects to destroy another class of objects. Probably the top categories of objects entropy uses to destroy other objects and entities are bacteria, viruses, and even plain, ordinary dust. In fact, when entropy isn't using oxidation to destroy all man made foods or industrially made liquids, contamination is what entropy then brings into play.

How Entropy Uses Heat

Otherwise known as an increase in temperature. For every degree increase in temperature, entropy accelerates decomposition, deterioration, destruction of the target object. Heat is entropy's favorite method for rendering any and all manufactured electronics useless. A decrease of temperature to .01 degrees Kelvin is minimum entropy. An increase of temperature to x millions/billions degrees is maximum entropy.

How Entropy Uses Synergy or Combinations of Destructive Methods

Combining methods from the above list is also an entropic standard procedure. Entropy really likes using the combination of methods where possible, because it accelerates the destruction; usually exponentially. The best example is where friction generates heat, which causes expansion, which causes more friction, which causes more heat, ad infinitum; the inevitable and sometimes quick result being the destruction of the victim object. Any manufactured item with moving parts is where this most often comes into play.

How Entropy Uses Cross-Purposes

Another often overlooked tool of entropy. Aside from the inherent cross-purposes designed into what we perceive as nature; we tend to forget humans are also a part of the same construct. So much so that humans are at cross-purposes more often than they are at equilibrium. The more disagreement, the more entropy. Taken to extreme, there is much more entropy during war than peace.

Randomness and Probability


Randomness – Entropy's Favorite Tool of All

Randomness can otherwise be defined as thermodynamics and/or quantum physics. The only difference between the two being the size of the objects entropy uses as its tools. In the case of thermodynamics, entropy uses atoms and molecules as its implementer. In the case of quantum physics, entropy uses subatomic particles. In both cases, whether they be molecules, atoms, or subatomic particles; the little critters immediately start randomly wandering around and going places where we don't want them to go.

Probability – Entropy Uses This Tool When It Just Wants to Have Fun

Two cars arriving at an intersection at the same time is an example of this. And then there are the asteroids, very large meteors, etc.... They can and do intersect Earth's orbit every now and again. And, of course, sooner or later Earth is just going to happen to be there. Probability is really just an attempt to understand the aforementioned category of randomness; with the additional factor of randomness using the much larger objects along with the smaller ones.

Entropy Is the Opposite of Order

Entropy is change, invariably for the worse. Entropy is constant. The proverb, "Change is constant", is true. Entropy is the antithesis and enemy of order. Energy and matter are in constant flux. Entropy's favorite concepts, quite simply, are: decomposition, destruction, deterioration, and chaos.

How does one compensate for and accept entropy? Keeping the following premises in mind will help.
  •  Entropy is not our friend.
  • Entropy can be slowed, but never stopped.
  • Entropy can be postponed, but never defeated.
  • Nothing lasts forever.
  • The universe doesn't care.

Entropy takes it all, whether you want it to or not, entropy takes it all. Entropy bears it away, and in the end, there is only darkness.*
*A paraphrased quote from Stephen King.

Have a nice day.

A How-to Conversion of Base 2, 4, 8, 16 to Decimal System

Base 2, 4, 8, 16 Number System Lessons for Binary, Quaternary, Octal, and Hexadecimal

(HAL says hi.)


Introduction and Start of Base Number Systems Tutorial

These four base numbering system lessons use the exact, same teaching methodology. As such, when you have learned one, you will have learned them all. There is also some repetitiveness, so as to reduce needed reverse scrolling. Comparisons of different base number systems can also prove useful.

If you understand the everyday, base 10 decimal number system we all use; then you already understand the base 2, base 4, base 8, and base 16 numbering systems. You just don’t know that you know yet.

As you know, we use the decimal (base 10) numbering system in our day-to-day lives. Base 10 has ten numbers (0-9) and orders of magnitude that are times ten. The lowest-order number represents itself times one. The next-order number represents itself times ten. The next order number represents itself times 10 x 10 or itself times 100. The next order number represents itself times 10 x 10 x 10 or itself times 1000. And so on.

An example would be the number 7824. This number means there are:
  • Four 1’s,
  • two 10’s,
  • eight 100’s,
  • and seven 1000's.
Which represents 4 + 20 + 800 + 7000; for a total of 7824.

Tutorial continues below at the base numbering system lesson of your choice...

Table of Contents

(A base-5-quinary tutorial is also available on a separate, standalone page.)

Lessons and examples follow or select from Table of Contents.



.

Base 2 to Base 10 – How to Do and Convert Base 2 to/from Base 10 – Binary Number System Conversions – Includes Examples

0's and 1's
How to Do Binary, Base 2 Number System Conversions.
Includes Examples.

Binary code is the basis of all digital technology; strings of 1’s and 0’s. The different combinations of 1’s and 0’s are how the technology tells itself what to do.

Here is everything you need to know on how to convert from binary code aka base 2 to decimal. And for converting from decimal aka base 10 to binary.

As previously stated: if you understand the decimal (base 10) number system you use every day, then you already understand the binary (base 2) numbering system.

And for folks who entered the search phrase: what is yes in binary? The answer is:
  • 1 is yes or indicates true in binary.
  • 0 is no or indicates false in binary.

How to Do the Binary Base 2 Numbering System

Per the introduction, base 10 has ten numbers (0-9) and orders of magnitude that are times ten. The orders of magnitude are l, 10, 100 (10x10) , 1000 (10x10x10), etc.

An example would be the number 497. This number means that there are:
  • Seven 1’s,
  • nine 10’s,
  • and four 100’s.
Which represents 7 +90 +400; for a total of 497.

The binary, base 2 numerical system (0's and 1's) uses the same structure, the only difference being the order of magnitude. Base 2 has two numbers (0-1) and orders of magnitude that are times two. The lowest-order number represents itself times one. The next order number represents itself times two. The next order number represents itself times 2x2 or itself times 4. The next order number represents itself times 2x2x2 or itself times 8. The next order number represents itself as 2x2x2x2 or itself times 16, And so on.

Orders of Magnitude in Base 2

1 · 2 · 4 · 8 · 16 · 32 · 64 · 128 · 256 · 512· 1024 · 2448 · 4096 · 8192

Positional

8192 · 4096 · 2048 · 1024 · 512 · 256 · 128 · 64 · 32 · 16 · 8 · 4 · 2 · 1

A basic, first example of a binary number would be the base 2 number 11111. This would mean there is:
  • one 1,
  • one 2,
  • one 4,
  • one 8,
  • and one 16.
Which represents 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16; for a total of 31 in Base 10 decimal.

Another base 2 example would be the binary number 101. This number means that there are:
  • one 1’s,
  • no 2’s,
  • and one 4’s.
Which represents 1 + 0 + 4; for a total of 5 in decimal.

Another base 2 example would be the binary number 10110. This number means that there are:
  • no 1’s,
  • one 2’s,
  • one 4’s,
  • no 8’s,
  • and one 16.
Which represents 0 + 2 + 4 + 0 + 16; for a total of 22 in decimal.

Orders of Magnitude in Base 2

1 · 2 · 4 · 8 · 16 · 32 · 64 · 128 · 256 · 512· 1024 · 2448 · 4096 · 8192

Positional

8192 · 4096 · 2048 · 1024 · 512 · 256 · 128 · 64 · 32 · 16 · 8 · 4 · 2 · 1

More Binary (Base 2) to Decimal (Base 10) Conversion Examples

Column headings in the following table are simply a convenience relist of the relevant positional orders of magnitude as applies to each column. There is no significance attached as to where one column ends and the next one begins.

-----------------------------
-----------------------------
------------------------------
8 · 4 · 2 · 1
16 · 8 · 4 · 2 · 1
64 · 32 · 16 · 8 · 4 · 2 · 1
0=0
1101=13
11010=26
1=1
1110=14
11011=27
10=2
1111=15
11100=28
11=3
10000=16
11101=29
100=4
10001=17
11110=30
101=5
10010=18
11111=31
110=6
10011=19
100000=32
111=7
10100=20
100001=33
1000=8
10101=21
100010=34
1001=9
10110=22
100011=35
1010=10
10111=23
100100=36
1011=11
11000=24
100101=37
1100=12
11001=25
100110=38




.

Base 4 to Base 10 – How to Do and Convert Base 4 to/from Base 10 – Quaternary Number System Conversions – Includes Examples

0 1 2 3
How to Do Quaternary, Base 4 Number System Conversions.
Includes Examples.

Base 4, also known as the quaternary number system, is predominantly used in DNA genotyping and some electronics applications, etc. [A year 2019 update. Scientists have added four more letters to the DNA alphabet, so base 8 may also be relevant.]

This lesson gives you everything you need to know for converting from quaternary aka base 4 to decimal and for converting from decimal aka base 10 to quaternary. If you understand the decimal number system,or the binary (base 2) numbering system for that matter, then you already understand the quaternary (base 4) number system.

Per the introduction, base 10 has ten numbers (0-9) and orders of magnitude that are times ten. The orders of magnitude are l, 10, 100 (10x10) , 1000 (10x10x10), etc.

An example would be the number 7112. This number means that there are:
  • two 1’s,
  • one 10’s,
  • one 100’s
  • and seven 1000’s.
Which represents 2 + 100 + 100 + 7000; for a total of 7112.

How to Do the Quaternary Base 4 Numbering System


Base 4 uses the same base 10 structure, the only difference being the orders of magnitude. Base 4 has four numbers (0-3) and orders of magnitude that are times four . The lowest-order number represents itself times one. The next-order number represents itself times four. The next order number represents itself times 4x4 or itself times 16. The next order number represents itself times 4x4x4 or itself times 64. The next order number represents itself times 4x4x4x4 or itself times 256. And so on.

Orders of Magnitude in Base 4

1 · 4 · 16 · 64 · 256 · 1024· 4096 · 16384

Positional

16384 · 4096 · 1024 · 256 · 64 · 16 · 4 · 1

A basic, first example of a quaternary number would be the base 4 number 11111. This would mean there is:
  • one 1,
  • one 4,
  • one 16,
  • one 64,
  • and one 256.
Which represents 1 + 4 + 16 + 64 + 256; for a total of 341 in Base 10 decimal.

Another base 4 example would be the quaternary number 321. This number means that there are:
  • one 1’s,
  • two 4’s,
  • and three 16’s.
Which represents 1 + 8 + 48; for a total of 57 in decimal.

Another base 4 example would be the quaternary number 3023. This number means that there are:
  • three 1’s,
  • two 4’s,
  • no 16’s,
  • and three 64’s.
Which represents 3 + 8 + 0 + 192; for a total of 203 in decimal.

Orders of Magnitude in Base 4

1 · 4 · 16 · 64 · 256 · 1024· 4096 · 16384

Positional

16384 · 4096 · 1024 · 256 · 64 · 16 · 4 · 1

More Quaternary (Base 4) to Decimal (Base 10) Conversion Examples

Column headings in the following table are simply a convenience relist of the relevant positional orders of magnitude as applies to each column.

------------------------------
------------------------------
------------------------------
4 · 1
16 · 4 · 1
64 · 16 · 4 · 1
0=0
21=9
200=32
1=1
22=10
222=42
2=2
23=11
223=43
3=3
30=12
333=63
10=4
33=15
1000=64
11=5
100=16
1100=80
12=6
102=18
2000=128
13=7
120=24
2030=140
20=8
122=26
3122=218




.

Base 8 to Base 10 – How to Do and Convert Base 8 to/from Base 10 – Octal Number System Conversions – Includes Examples

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
How to Do Octal, Base 8 Number System Conversions.
Includes Examples.

Base 8, also known as the octal number system, is mostly used in electronics and some DNA applications, etc.

Here is everything you need to know on how to convert from octal aka base 8 to decimal. And for converting from decimal aka base 10 to octal.

As previously stated: if you understand the decimal (base 10) number system you use every day, then you already understand the octal (base 8) numbering system.

Per the introduction, base 10 has ten numbers (0-9) and orders of magnitude that are times ten. The orders of magnitude are l, 10, 100 (10x10) , 1000 (10x10x10), etc.

An example would be the number 2375. This number means that there are:
  • five 1’s,
  • seven 10’s,
  • three 100’s
  • and two 1000’s.
Which represents 5 + 70 + 300 + 2000; for a total of 2375.

How to Do the Octal Base 8 Numbering System


Base 8 uses the same base 10 structure, the only difference being the orders of magnitude. Base 8 has eight numbers (0-7) and orders of magnitude that are times eight. The lowest-order number represents itself times one. The next-order number represents itself times eight. The next order number represents itself times 8x8 or itself times 64. The next order number represents itself times 8x8x8 or itself times 512. And so on.

Orders of Magnitude in Base 8

1 · 8 · 64 · 512 · 4096 · 32768 · 262144

Positional

262144 · 32768 · 4096 · 512 · 64 · 8 · 1

A basic, first example of an octal number would be the base 8 number 11111. This would mean there is:
  • one 1,
  • one 8,
  • one 64,
  • one 512,
  • and one 4096.
Which represents 1 + 8 + 64 + 512 + 4096; for a total of 4681 in Base 10 decimal.

Another base 8 example would be the octal number 321. This number means that there are:
  • one 1’s,
  • two 8’s,
  • and three 64’s.
Which represents 1 + 16 + 192; for a total of 209 in decimal.

Another base 8 example would be the octal number 4075. This number means that there are:
  • five 1’s,
  • seven 8’s,
  • no 64’s,
  • and four 512’s.
Which represents 5 + 56 + 0 + 2048; for a total of 2109 in decimal.

Orders of Magnitude in Base 8

1 · 8 · 64 · 512 · 4096 · 32768 · 262144

Positional

262144 · 32768 · 4096 · 512 · 64 · 8 · 1

More Octal (Base 8) to Decimal (Base 10) Conversion Examples

Column headings in the following table are simply a convenience relist of the relevant positional orders of magnitude as applies to each column.

------------------------------
------------------------------
------------------------------
8 · 1
8 · 1
512 · 64 · 8 · 1
0=0
15=13
100=64
1=1
16=14
165=117
2=2
17=15
200=128
7=7
20=16
534=348
10=8
25=21
1000=512
11=9
34=28
1100=576
12=10
50=40
2000=1024
13=11
55=45
2006=1030
14=12
77=63
2011=1033




.

Base 16 to Base 10 – How to Do and Convert Base 16 to/from Base 10 – Hexadecimal Number System Conversions – Includes Examples

Hex: 0-9, A a, B b, C c, D d, E e, F f
How to Do Hexadecimal, Base 16 Number System Conversions.
Includes Examples.

Hexadecimal (base 16) is the primary base numbering system used by computer programmers. Hex code is used in everything from core dumps to color codes and everything in-between.

Per the introduction, base 10 has ten numbers (0-9) and orders of magnitude that are times ten. The orders of magnitude are l, 10, 100 (10x10) , 1000 (10x10x10), etc.

An example would be the number 5681. This number means there are:
  • one 1’s,
  • eight 10’s,
  • six 100’s,
  • and five 1000’s.
Which represents 1 + 80 + 600 + 5000; for a total of 5681.

Base 16 uses the same base 10 structure, the only difference being the orders of magnitude.

How to Do the Hexadecimal Base 16 Numbering System


Beware Miscalculations
The orders of magnitude are times sixteen. The lowest-order number represents itself times one. The next-order number represents itself times sixteen. The next order number represents itself times 16x16 or itself times 256. The next order number represents itself times 16x16x16 or itself times 4096. And so on.

Hexadecimal Orders of Magnitude:

1 · 16 · 256 · 4096 · 65536 · 1048576

Positional:

1048576 · 65536 · 4096 · 256 · 16 · 1

Base 16 aka hex has sixteen numbers (0-F). The first ten numbers are the usual 0 thru 9. The next six numbers are A=10, B=11, C=12, D=13, E=14, F=15.

Altogether we have:
0=0, 1=1, 2=2, 3=3, 4=4, 5=5, 6=6, 7=7, 8=8, 9=9,
A=10, B=11, C=12, D=13, E=14, F=15.


A basic, first example of a hexadecimal number would be the base 16 number 11111. This would mean there is:
  • one 1,
  • one 16,
  • one 256,
  • one 4096,
  • and one 65536.
Which represents 1 + 16 + 256 + 4096 + 65536; for a total of 69905 in Base 10 decimal.

Another base 16 example would be the hex number 5C7F. This number means there are:
  • fifteen 1’s,
  • seven 16’s,
  • twelve 256’s,
  • and five 4096’s.
Which represents 15 +112 +3072 + 20480; for a total of 23679 in decimal.

Another base 16 example would be the hex number D24A. This number means there are:
  • ten 1’s,
  • four 16’s,
  • two 256’s,
  • and thirteen 4096’s.
Which represents 10 +64 +512 + 53248; for a total of 53834 in decimal.

Hexadecimal Orders of Magnitude

1 · 16 · 256 · 4096 · 65536 · 1048576

Positional

1048576 · 65536 · 4096 · 256 · 16 · 1

More Hexadecimal (Base 16) to Decimal (Base 10) Conversion Examples

Column headings in the following table are simply a convenience relist of the relevant positional orders of magnitude as applies to each column. There is no significance attached as to where one column ends and the next one begins.
A=10, B=11, C=12, D=13, E=14, F=15
---------------------------
---------------------------
------------------------------
16 · 1
256 · 16 · 1
65536 · 4096 · 256 · 16 · 1
0=0
16=22
101=257
1=1
17=23
111=273
2=2
1A=26
200=512
9=9
1C=28
3E4=996
A=10
1F=31
3E8=1000
B=11
20=32
BAD=2989
F=15
21=33
FFF=4095
10=16
27=39
1000=4096
11=17
2A=42
1004=4100
12=18
77=119
2BAD=11181
13=19
BD=189
DEAD=57005
14=20
FF=255
10000=65536
15=21
100=256
10100=65792

Simply a Sequential List of Hexadecimal Numbers

Table created using the Microsoft Excel formula: “=DEC2HEX(cell address here)”.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 3A 3B 3C 3D 3E 3F 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 5A 5B 5C 5D 5E 5F 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 6A 6B 6C 6D 6E 6F 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 7A 7B 7C 7D 7E 7F 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 8A 8B 8C 8D 8E 8F 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 9A 9B 9C 9D 9E 9F A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 AA AB AC AD AE AF B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 BA BB BC BD BE BF C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 CA CB CC CD CE CF D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 DA DB DC DD DE DF E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 EA EB EC ED EE EF F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FA FB FC FD FE FF 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 10A 10B 10C 10D 10E 10F 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 11A 11B 11C 11D 11E 11F 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 12A 12B 12C 12D 12E 12F 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 13A 13B 13C 13D 13E 13F 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 14A 14B 14C 14D 14E 14F 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 15A 15B 15C 15D 15E 15F 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 16A 16B 16C 16D 16E 16F 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 17A 17B 17C 17D 17E 17F 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 18A 18B 18C 18D 18E 18F 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 19A 19B 19C 19D 19E 19F 1A0 1A1 1A2 1A3 1A4 1A5 1A6 1A7 1A8 1A9 1AA 1AB 1AC 1AD 1AE 1AF 1B0 1B1 1B2 1B3 1B4 1B5 1B6 1B7 1B8 1B9 1BA 1BB 1BC 1BD 1BE 1BF 1C0 1C1 1C2 1C3 1C4 1C5 1C6 1C7 1C8 1C9 1CA 1CB 1CC 1CD 1CE 1CF 1D0 1D1 1D2 1D3 1D4 1D5 1D6 1D7 1D8 1D9 1DA 1DB 1DC 1DD 1DE 1DF 1E0 1E1 1E2 1E3 1E4 1E5 1E6 1E7 1E8 1E9 1EA 1EB 1EC 1ED 1EE 1EF 1F0 1F1 1F2 1F3 1F4 1F5 1F6 1F7 1F8 1F9 1FA 1FB 1FC 1FD 1FE 1FF 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 20A 20B 20C 20D 20E 20F 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 21A 21B 21C 21D 21E 21F 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 22A 22B 22C 22D 22E 22F 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 23A 23B 23C 23D 23E 23F 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 24A 24B 24C 24D 24E 24F 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 25A 25B 25C 25D 25E 25F 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 26A 26B 26C 26D 26E 26F 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 27A 27B 27C 27D 27E 27F 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 28A 28B 28C 28D 28E 28F 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 29A 29B 29C 29D 29E 29F 2A0 2A1 2A2 2A3 2A4 2A5 2A6 2A7 2A8 2A9 2AA 2AB 2AC 2AD 2AE 2AF 2B0 2B1 2B2 2B3 2B4 2B5 2B6 2B7 2B8 2B9 2BA 2BB 2BC 2BD 2BE 2BF 2C0 2C1 2C2 2C3 2C4 2C5 2C6 2C7 2C8 2C9 2CA 2CB 2CC 2CD 2CE 2CF 2D0 2D1 2D2 2D3 2D4 2D5 2D6 2D7 2D8 2D9 2DA 2DB 2DC 2DD 2DE 2DF 2E0 2E1 2E2 2E3 2E4 2E5 2E6 2E7 2E8 2E9 2EA 2EB 2EC 2ED 2EE 2EF 2F0 2F1 2F2 2F3 2F4 2F5 2F6 2F7 2F8 2F9 2FA 2FB 2FC 2FD 2FE 2FF 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 30A 30B 30C 30D 30E 30F 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 31A 31B 31C 31D 31E 31F 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 32A 32B 32C 32D 32E 32F 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 33A 33B 33C 33D 33E 33F 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 34A 34B 34C 34D 34E 34F 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 35A 35B 35C 35D 35E 35F 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 36A 36B 36C 36D 36E 36F 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 37A 37B 37C 37D 37E 37F 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 38A 38B 38C 38D 38E 38F 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 39A 39B 39C 39D 39E 39F 3A0 3A1 3A2 3A3 3A4 3A5 3A6 3A7 3A8 3A9 3AA 3AB 3AC 3AD 3AE 3AF 3B0 3B1 3B2 3B3 3B4 3B5 3B6 3B7 3B8 3B9 3BA 3BB 3BC 3BD 3BE 3BF 3C0 3C1 3C2 3C3 3C4 3C5 3C6 3C7 3C8 3C9 3CA 3CB 3CC 3CD 3CE 3CF 3D0 3D1 3D2 3D3 3D4 3D5 3D6 3D7 3D8 3D9 3DA 3DB 3DC 3DD 3DE 3DF 3E0 3E1 3E2 3E3 3E4 3E5 3E6 3E7 3E8 3E9 3EA 3EB 3EC 3ED 3EE 3EF 3F0 3F1 3F2 3F3 3F4 3F5 3F6 3F7 3F8 3F9 3FA 3FB 3FC 3FD 3FE 3FF 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 40A 40B 40C 40D 40E 40F 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 41A 41B 41C 41D 41E 41F 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 42A 42B 42C 42D 42E 42F 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 43A 43B 43C 43D 43E 43F 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 44A 44B 44C 44D 44E 44F 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 45A 45B 45C 45D 45E 45F 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 46A 46B 46C 46D 46E 46F 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 47A 47B 47C 47D 47E 47F 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 48A 48B 48C 48D 48E 48F 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 49A 49B 49C 49D 49E 49F 4A0 4A1 4A2 4A3 4A4 4A5 4A6 4A7 4A8 4A9 4AA 4AB 4AC 4AD 4AE 4AF 4B0 4B1 4B2 4B3 4B4 4B5 4B6 4B7 4B8 4B9 4BA 4BB 4BC 4BD 4BE 4BF 4C0 4C1 4C2 4C3 4C4 4C5 4C6 4C7 4C8 4C9 4CA 4CB 4CC 4CD 4CE 4CF 4D0 4D1 4D2 4D3 4D4 4D5 4D6 4D7 4D8 4D9 4DA 4DB 4DC 4DD 4DE 4DF 4E0 4E1 4E2 4E3 4E4 4E5 4E6 4E7 4E8 4E9 4EA 4EB 4EC 4ED 4EE 4EF 4F0 4F1 4F2 4F3 4F4 4F5 4F6 4F7 4F8 4F9 4FA 4FB 4FC 4FD 4FE 4FF 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 50A 50B 50C 50D 50E 50F 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 51A 51B 51C 51D 51E 51F 520

Metaphysics Philosophy: Description, Existence, Examples, Outside the Box

What Is Metaphysics and the Metaphysical –
Science / Philosophy / Spiritual


The Undefined Science

Metaphysics – not even Stanford and Wikipedia can agree on neither a succinct nor an encompassing meaning or definition for metaphysics. This is because:
  • The definitions and meanings of metaphysics and metaphysical keep changing.
  • The study and science of metaphysics includes an almost unlimited number of subcategories.
  • The most respected minds in academia, the sciences, and even in the general population are continually unable to reach an agreement as to the perfect meaning or definition.
  • There are disputes as to what does and does not belong in the study or category of metaphysics and metaphysical.

One definition or meaning for metaphysics could be the sciences and non-sciences that cannot be put in another category are put into the category of metaphysics. However, this meaning or definition would not be complete; because there are sciences that are studied and categorized in other categories that are also included as a part of metaphysics and the metaphysical.

For certain disciplines, the discipline is a subset of metaphysics; and metaphysics is a subset of the discipline. In other words, each is a subset of the other depending on the context and/or the parameters used.

An example:
A. There is the philosophical part of metaphysics.
B. There is the metaphysical part of philosophy.

What is Metaphysics and the Metaphysical -
Thinking Outside the Box

Problems can have more than one solution.

Subjects such as cosmology, ontology, physics, philosophy, existence, time and space, astrobiology, perception, etc are generally undisputed as being both part of metaphysics and outside of metaphysics. It all depends on the subcategory of the main subject being addressed.

Other examples and subjects continually being associated with metaphysics include paranormal, astrology, New Age, spiritual, meditation, wisdom, karma, determinism, fate, shaman, unity, reiki, psychic, mind and matter, meaning of life, feng shui, etc.; the metaphysical and quasi-metaphysical list can be a long one.

Metaphysics is the perfect place to “think outside the box”. You are allowed to research any theory or hypothesis you wish. You are allowed to follow any chain of logic to wherever it goes. Mixing “unrelated” subjects to derive unusual metaphysical “solutions” is perfectly acceptable. In other words, you are allowed to explore without constraint.

Philosophy vs Metaphysics -
Perception / Perspective / Reality

And some examples.

What Is Spiritual Metaphysics

Spiritual metaphysics versus religion

What is spiritual metaphysics? It is similar, but not the same as religion.

What is religion? Religion is where one makes up whatever they want.

Spiritual metaphysics on the other hand, attempts to base its conclusions on logic. As humankind's logic and thinking abilities evolve, so does spiritual metaphysics.

Metaphysical and Philosophical Thoughts, Quotes, Ramblings, Examples... And possibly a little scattered humor.

  • In the beginning there was nothing, which exploded.
  • With all that goes on in life and reality, the only possible conclusion is we are all lab rats.
  • Most everything means nothing.
  • Time can sometimes cure a problem all by itself. Though can be an excellent excuse for procrastination, it is more often than not not a wise choice.
  • Free will exists. But it is limited. And it is limited more with some than with others.
  • Sometimes one can actually choose whether a problem exists or not.
  • Belief is the death of intelligence.
  • The fatal flaw of logic is its presumption of being aware of all relevant premises. However, that is seldom the true situation. The best one can hope for is a favorable probability.
  • No one belongs here more than you.
  • No one belongs here less than you.
  • One of the most important lessons a person can learn in life is that other people are as real behind their eyes as you are behind yours.
  • Miscommunication can cause more problems than all other factors combined. Always examine a perceived negative statement twice; it may not be negative at all. Give others the benefit of the doubt. 
  • Life is an iterative process.