Binary Base 2, Quaternary Base 4, Octal Base 8, Hexadecimal Base 16:
Numbering System Lessons

(HAL says hi.) 
Introduction and Start of Base Number Systems Tutorials
These four base numbering system lessons use the exact, same teaching methodology. As such, when you have learned one, you will have learned them all. There is also some repetitiveness, so as to reduce needed reverse scrolling. Comparisons of different base number systems can also prove useful.
If you understand the everyday, base 10 decimal number system we all use; then you
already understand the base 2, base 4, base 8, and base 16
numbering systems. You just don’t know that you know yet.
As you know, we use the decimal (base 10) numbering system in our daytoday lives.
Base 10 has ten numbers (09) and orders of magnitude that are times
ten. The lowestorder number represents itself times one. The nextorder
number represents itself times ten. The next order number represents
itself times 10 x 10 or itself times 100. The next order number represents
itself times 10 x 10 x 10 or itself times 1000. And so on.
An example would be the number 7824. This number means there are:
 Four 1’s,
 two 10’s,
 eight 100’s,
 and seven 1000's.
Which represents 4 + 20 + 800 + 7000; for a total of 7824.
Tutorial continues below on the base numbering system lesson of your choice...
Table of Contents
(A
base5quinary tutorial is also available on a separate, standalone page.)
Lessons and examples follow or select from Table of Contents.
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Binary Base 2 to Base 10 – How to Do and Convert Base 2 to/from Base 10 – Number System Conversions – Includes Examples
0's and 1's

How to Do Binary, Base 2 Number System Conversions.
Includes Examples. 
Binary code is the basis of all digital technology; strings of 1’s
and 0’s. The different combinations of 1’s and 0’s are how the
technology tells itself what to do.
Here is everything you need to know on how to convert from binary code aka base 2 to decimal. And for
converting from decimal aka base 10 to binary.
As previously stated: if you understand the decimal (base 10) number system you use every day, then you already understand the binary (base 2) numbering system.
And for folks who entered the search phrase:
what is yes in binary? The answer is:
 1 is yes or indicates true in binary.
 0 is no or indicates false in binary.
How to Do the Binary Base 2 Numbering System
Per the introduction, base 10 has ten numbers (09) and orders of magnitude that are times
ten. The orders of magnitude are l, 10, 100 (10x10) , 1000 (10x10x10), etc.
An example would be the number 497. This number means that there are:
 Seven 1’s,
 nine 10’s,
 and four 100’s.
Which represents 7 +90 +400; for a total of 497.
The binary, base 2 numerical system (0's and 1's) uses the same structure, the only difference being the order of magnitude. Base 2 has two numbers (01) and orders of magnitude that are times two. The
lowestorder number represents itself times one. The next order number represents itself times two. The next order number represents itself times 2x2 or itself times 4. The next order number represents itself times 2x2x2 or itself times 8. The next order number represents itself as 2x2x2x2 or itself times 16, And so on.
Orders of Magnitude in Base 2
1 · 2 · 4 · 8 · 16 · 32 · 64 · 128 · 256 · 512· 1024 · 2448 · 4096 · 8192
Positional
8192 · 4096 · 2048 · 1024 · 512 · 256 · 128 · 64 · 32 · 16 · 8 · 4 · 2 · 1
A basic, first example of a binary number would be the base 2 number 11111. This would mean there is:
 one 1,
 one 2,
 one 4,
 one 8,
 and one 16.
Which represents 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16; for a total of 31 in Base 10 decimal.
Another base 2 example would be the binary number 101. This number means that there are:
 one 1’s,
 no 2’s,
 and one 4’s.
Which represents 1 + 0 + 4; for a total of 5 in decimal.
Another base 2 example would be the binary number 10110. This number means that there are:
 no 1’s,
 one 2’s,
 one 4’s,
 no 8’s,
 and one 16.
Which represents 0 + 2 + 4 + 0 + 16; for a total of 22 in decimal.
Orders of Magnitude in Base 2
1 · 2 · 4 · 8 · 16 · 32 · 64 · 128 · 256 · 512· 1024 · 2448 · 4096 · 8192
Positional
8192 · 4096 · 2048 · 1024 · 512 · 256 · 128 · 64 · 32 · 16 · 8 · 4 · 2 · 1
More Binary (Base 2) to Decimal (Base 10) Conversion Examples
Column headings in the following table are simply a convenience relist of the relevant positional orders of magnitude as applies to each column. There is no significance attached as to where one column ends and the next one begins.






8 · 4 · 2 · 1

16 · 8 · 4 · 2 · 1

64 · 32 · 16 · 8 · 4 · 2 · 1








































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Quaternary Base 4 to Base 10 – How to Do and Convert Base 4 to/from Base 10 – Number System Conversions – Includes Examples
0 1 2 3

How to Do Quaternary, Base 4 Number System Conversions.
Includes Examples. 
Base 4, also known as the quaternary number system, is predominantly used in DNA genotyping and some electronics applications, etc. [A year 2019 update. Scientists have added four more letters to the DNA alphabet, so base 8 may also be relevant.]
This lesson gives you everything you need to know for converting from quaternary aka base 4 to decimal and for converting from decimal aka base 10 to quaternary. If you understand the decimal number system,or the binary (base 2) numbering system for that matter, then you already understand the quaternary (base 4) number system.
Per the introduction, base 10 has ten numbers (09) and orders of magnitude that are times
ten. The orders of magnitude are l, 10, 100 (10x10) , 1000 (10x10x10), etc.
An example would be the number 7112. This number means that there are:
 two 1’s,
 one 10’s,
 one 100’s
 and seven 1000’s.
Which represents 2 + 100 + 100 + 7000; for a total of 7112.
How to Do the Quaternary Base 4 Numbering System
Base 4 uses the same base 10 structure, the only difference being the orders of magnitude.
Base 4 has four numbers (03) and orders of magnitude that are times four . The lowestorder number represents itself times one. The
nextorder number represents itself times four. The next order number represents itself times 4x4 or itself times 16. The next order number represents itself times 4x4x4 or itself times 64. The next order number represents itself times 4x4x4x4 or itself times 256. And so on.
Orders of Magnitude in Base 4
1 · 4 · 16 · 64 · 256 · 1024· 4096 · 16384
Positional
16384 · 4096 · 1024 · 256 · 64 · 16 · 4 · 1
A basic, first example of a quaternary number would be the base 4 number 11111. This would mean there is:
 one 1,
 one 4,
 one 16,
 one 64,
 and one 256.
Which represents 1 + 4 + 16 + 64 + 256; for a total of 341 in Base 10 decimal.
Another base 4 example would be the quaternary number 321. This number means that there are:
 one 1’s,
 two 4’s,
 and three 16’s.
Which represents 1 + 8 + 48; for a total of 57 in decimal.
Another base 4 example would be the quaternary number 3023. This number means that there are:
 three 1’s,
 two 4’s,
 no 16’s,
 and three 64’s.
Which represents 3 + 8 + 0 + 192; for a total of 203 in decimal.
Orders of Magnitude in Base 4
1 · 4 · 16 · 64 · 256 · 1024· 4096 · 16384
Positional
16384 · 4096 · 1024 · 256 · 64 · 16 · 4 · 1
More Quaternary (Base 4) to Decimal (Base 10) Conversion Examples
Column headings in the following table are simply a convenience relist of the relevant positional orders of magnitude as applies to each column.






4 · 1

16 · 4 · 1

64 · 16 · 4 · 1




























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Octal Base 8 to Base 10 – How to Do and Convert Base 8 to/from Base 10 – Number System Conversions – Includes Examples
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

How to Do Octal, Base 8 Number System Conversions.
Includes Examples. 
Base 8, also known as the octal number system, is mostly used in electronics and some DNA applications, etc.
Here is everything you need to know on how to convert from octal aka base 8 to decimal. And for
converting from decimal aka base 10 to octal.
As
previously stated: if you understand the decimal (base 10) number system
you use every day, then you already understand the octal (base 8)
numbering system.
Per the introduction, base 10 has ten numbers (09) and orders of magnitude that are times
ten. The orders of magnitude are l, 10, 100 (10x10) , 1000 (10x10x10), etc.
An example would be the number 2375. This number means that there are:
 five 1’s,
 seven 10’s,
 three 100’s
 and two 1000’s.
Which represents 5 + 70 + 300 + 2000; for a total of 2375.
How to Do the Octal Base 8 Numbering System
Base 8 uses the same base 10 structure, the only difference being the orders of magnitude.
Base 8 has eight numbers (07) and orders of magnitude that are times
eight. The lowestorder number represents itself times one. The
nextorder number represents itself times eight. The next order number represents itself times 8x8 or itself times 64. The next order number represents itself times 8x8x8 or itself times 512. And so on.
Orders of Magnitude in Base 8
1 · 8 · 64 · 512 · 4096 · 32768 · 262144
Positional
262144 · 32768 · 4096 · 512 · 64 · 8 · 1
A basic, first example of an octal number would be the base 8 number 11111. This would mean there is:
 one 1,
 one 8,
 one 64,
 one 512,
 and one 4096.
Which represents 1 + 8 + 64 + 512 + 4096; for a total of 4681 in Base 10 decimal.
Another base 8 example would be the octal number 321. This number means that there are:
 one 1’s,
 two 8’s,
 and three 64’s.
Which represents 1 + 16 + 192; for a total of 209 in decimal.
Another base 8 example would be the octal number 4075. This number means that there are:
 five 1’s,
 seven 8’s,
 no 64’s,
 and four 512’s.
Which represents 5 + 56 + 0 + 2048; for a total of 2109 in decimal.
Orders of Magnitude in Base 8
1 · 8 · 64 · 512 · 4096 · 32768 · 262144
Positional
262144 · 32768 · 4096 · 512 · 64 · 8 · 1
More Octal (Base 8) to Decimal (Base 10) Conversion Examples
Column headings in the following table are simply a convenience relist of the relevant positional orders of magnitude as applies to each column.






8 · 1

8 · 1

512 · 64 · 8 · 1




























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Hexadecimal Base 16 to Base 10 – How to Do and Convert Base 16 to/from Base 10 – Number System Conversions – Includes Examples
Hex: 09, A a, B b, C c, D d, E e, F f

How to Do Hexadecimal, Base 16 Number System Conversions.
Includes Examples. 
Hexadecimal (base 16) is the primary base numbering system used by computer programmers. Hex code is used in everything from core dumps to color codes and everything inbetween.
Per the introduction, base 10 has ten numbers (09) and orders of magnitude that are times
ten. The orders of magnitude are l, 10, 100 (10x10) , 1000 (10x10x10), etc.
An example would be the number 5681. This number means there are:
 one 1’s,
 eight 10’s,
 six 100’s,
 and five 1000’s.
Which represents 1 + 80 + 600 + 5000; for a total of 5681.
Base 16 uses the same base 10 structure, the only difference being the orders of magnitude.
How to Do the Hexadecimal Base 16 Numbering System

Beware Miscalculations 
The orders of magnitude are times sixteen. The lowestorder number represents itself times one. The nextorder number represents itself times sixteen. The next order number represents itself times 16x16 or itself times 256. The next order number represents itself times 16x16x16 or itself times 4096. And so on.
Hexadecimal Orders of Magnitude:
1 · 16 · 256 · 4096 · 65536 · 1048576
Positional:
1048576 · 65536 · 4096 · 256 · 16 · 1
Base 16 aka hex has sixteen numbers (0F). The first ten numbers are the usual 0 thru 9. The next six numbers are A=10, B=11, C=12, D=13, E=14, F=15.
Altogether we have:
0=0, 1=1, 2=2, 3=3, 4=4, 5=5, 6=6, 7=7, 8=8, 9=9,
A=10, B=11, C=12, D=13, E=14, F=15.
A basic, first example of a hexadecimal number would be the base 16 number 11111. This would mean there is:
 one 1,
 one 16,
 one 256,
 one 4096,
 and one 65536.
Which represents 1 + 16 + 256 + 4096 + 65536; for a total of 69905 in Base 10 decimal.
Another base 16 example would be the hex number 5C7F. This number means there are:
 fifteen 1’s,
 seven 16’s,
 twelve 256’s,
 and five 4096’s.
Which represents 15 +112 +3072 + 20480; for a total of 23679 in decimal.
Another base 16 example would be the hex number D24A. This number means there are:
 ten 1’s,
 four 16’s,
 two 256’s,
 and thirteen 4096’s.
Which represents 10 +64 +512 + 53248; for a total of 53834 in decimal.
Hexadecimal Orders of Magnitude
1 · 16 · 256 · 4096 · 65536 · 1048576
Positional
1048576 · 65536 · 4096 · 256 · 16 · 1
More Hexadecimal (Base 16) to Decimal (Base 10) Conversion Examples
Column headings in the following table are simply a convenience relist of the relevant positional orders of magnitude as applies to each column. There is no significance attached as to where one column ends and the next one begins.
A=10, B=11, C=12, D=13, E=14, F=15






16 · 1

256 · 16 · 1

65536 · 4096 · 256 · 16 · 1








































Simply a Sequential List of Hexadecimal Numbers
Table created using the Microsoft Excel formula: “=DEC2HEX(cell address here)”.
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
100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 10A 10B 10C 10D 10E 10F 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 11A 11B 11C 11D 11E 11F 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 12A 12B 12C 12D 12E 12F 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 13A 13B 13C 13D 13E 13F 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 14A 14B 14C 14D 14E 14F 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 15A 15B 15C 15D 15E 15F 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 16A 16B 16C 16D 16E 16F 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 17A 17B 17C 17D 17E 17F 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 18A 18B 18C 18D 18E 18F 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 19A 19B 19C 19D 19E 19F 1A0 1A1 1A2 1A3 1A4 1A5 1A6 1A7 1A8 1A9 1AA 1AB 1AC 1AD 1AE 1AF 1B0 1B1 1B2 1B3 1B4 1B5 1B6 1B7 1B8 1B9 1BA 1BB 1BC 1BD 1BE 1BF 1C0 1C1 1C2 1C3 1C4 1C5 1C6 1C7 1C8 1C9 1CA 1CB 1CC 1CD 1CE 1CF 1D0 1D1 1D2 1D3 1D4 1D5 1D6 1D7 1D8 1D9 1DA 1DB 1DC 1DD 1DE 1DF 1E0 1E1 1E2 1E3 1E4 1E5 1E6 1E7 1E8 1E9 1EA 1EB 1EC 1ED 1EE 1EF 1F0 1F1 1F2 1F3 1F4 1F5 1F6 1F7 1F8 1F9 1FA 1FB 1FC 1FD 1FE 1FF
200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 20A 20B 20C 20D 20E 20F 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 21A 21B 21C 21D 21E 21F 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 22A 22B 22C 22D 22E 22F 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 23A 23B 23C 23D 23E 23F 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 24A 24B 24C 24D 24E 24F 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 25A 25B 25C 25D 25E 25F 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 26A 26B 26C 26D 26E 26F 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 27A 27B 27C 27D 27E 27F 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 28A 28B 28C 28D 28E 28F 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 29A 29B 29C 29D 29E 29F 2A0 2A1 2A2 2A3 2A4 2A5 2A6 2A7 2A8 2A9 2AA 2AB 2AC 2AD 2AE 2AF 2B0 2B1 2B2 2B3 2B4 2B5 2B6 2B7 2B8 2B9 2BA 2BB 2BC 2BD 2BE 2BF 2C0 2C1 2C2 2C3 2C4 2C5 2C6 2C7 2C8 2C9 2CA 2CB 2CC 2CD 2CE 2CF 2D0 2D1 2D2 2D3 2D4 2D5 2D6 2D7 2D8 2D9 2DA 2DB 2DC 2DD 2DE 2DF 2E0 2E1 2E2 2E3 2E4 2E5 2E6 2E7 2E8 2E9 2EA 2EB 2EC 2ED 2EE 2EF 2F0 2F1 2F2 2F3 2F4 2F5 2F6 2F7 2F8 2F9 2FA 2FB 2FC 2FD 2FE 2FF
300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 30A 30B 30C 30D 30E 30F 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 31A 31B 31C 31D 31E 31F 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 32A 32B 32C 32D 32E 32F 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 33A 33B 33C 33D 33E 33F 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 34A 34B 34C 34D 34E 34F 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 35A 35B 35C 35D 35E 35F 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 36A 36B 36C 36D 36E 36F 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 37A 37B 37C 37D 37E 37F 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 38A 38B 38C 38D 38E 38F 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 39A 39B 39C 39D 39E 39F 3A0 3A1 3A2 3A3 3A4 3A5 3A6 3A7 3A8 3A9 3AA 3AB 3AC 3AD 3AE 3AF 3B0 3B1 3B2 3B3 3B4 3B5 3B6 3B7 3B8 3B9 3BA 3BB 3BC 3BD 3BE 3BF 3C0 3C1 3C2 3C3 3C4 3C5 3C6 3C7 3C8 3C9 3CA 3CB 3CC 3CD 3CE 3CF 3D0 3D1 3D2 3D3 3D4 3D5 3D6 3D7 3D8 3D9 3DA 3DB 3DC 3DD 3DE 3DF 3E0 3E1 3E2 3E3 3E4 3E5 3E6 3E7 3E8 3E9 3EA 3EB 3EC 3ED 3EE 3EF 3F0 3F1 3F2 3F3 3F4 3F5 3F6 3F7 3F8 3F9 3FA 3FB 3FC 3FD 3FE 3FF
400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 40A 40B 40C 40D 40E 40F 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 41A 41B 41C 41D 41E 41F 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 42A 42B 42C 42D 42E 42F 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 43A 43B 43C 43D 43E 43F 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 44A 44B 44C 44D 44E 44F 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 45A 45B 45C 45D 45E 45F 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 46A 46B 46C 46D 46E 46F 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 47A 47B 47C 47D 47E 47F 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 48A 48B 48C 48D 48E 48F 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 49A 49B 49C 49D 49E 49F 4A0 4A1 4A2 4A3 4A4 4A5 4A6 4A7 4A8 4A9 4AA 4AB 4AC 4AD 4AE 4AF 4B0 4B1 4B2 4B3 4B4 4B5 4B6 4B7 4B8 4B9 4BA 4BB 4BC 4BD 4BE 4BF 4C0 4C1 4C2 4C3 4C4 4C5 4C6 4C7 4C8 4C9 4CA 4CB 4CC 4CD 4CE 4CF 4D0 4D1 4D2 4D3 4D4 4D5 4D6 4D7 4D8 4D9 4DA 4DB 4DC 4DD 4DE 4DF 4E0 4E1 4E2 4E3 4E4 4E5 4E6 4E7 4E8 4E9 4EA 4EB 4EC 4ED 4EE 4EF 4F0 4F1 4F2 4F3 4F4 4F5 4F6 4F7 4F8 4F9 4FA 4FB 4FC 4FD 4FE 4FF
500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 50A 50B 50C 50D 50E 50F 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 51A 51B 51C 51D 51E 51F 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 52A 52B 52C 52D 52E 52F 530